[Stoves] Thai Bucket Stove

Tom Miles tmiles at trmiles.com
Sun Dec 3 18:33:49 MST 2017

Very interesting. Thanks for the additional information. 


Several years ago, we found that even industry can have problems firing ceramics. The ingredients may be in the correct proportion but if they are not blended correctly you can get defects when they are fired. We reduced ceramic cathode tube kiln loss from 25% to less than 5% by improved blending of the ingredients before ball milling, spray drying, forming and firing.     




From: Stoves [mailto:stoves-bounces at lists.bioenergylists.org] On Behalf Of Crispin Pemberton-Pigott
Sent: Sunday, December 03, 2017 3:38 PM
To: Discussion of biomass cooking stoves <stoves at lists.bioenergylists.org>
Subject: Re: [Stoves] Thai Bucket Stove


Thanks Tom


The Anagi stove was the inspiration for the improved SAE (SAI?) stove in Yogyakarta that have a more deliberate attempt to use a flame tube leading out of the lower combustion chamber, in order to burn the smoke before it reached the second pot. 


That ‘flame tube’ was developed in Mongolia in order to improve the emissions performance and yield free heat in the traditional stove without adding more than $1 to the cost. It reduced PM emissions 82% on average (and of course burned the that portion of the fuel).


Later this was added to the brick-lined stoves designed in Muminabad, Tajikistan, now being rolled out by the WB Winter Pilot in Kyrgyzstan and CARITAS in Tajikistan (plus their own WB Winter Pilot) in the Model 2.0, 2.5 and the CARITAS version of the KG2.0. (The first digit refers to the model, the sub refers to the size.) 


If an Anagi stove has a small enough pipe connecting the two cooking places, the same effect is produced at very high power. The later implementations made the function standard. The effect on a dung burning stove is dramatic because the smoke is think and contains a great deal of the lost energy in the form of suspended carbon. It works well even if the conditions for the primary combustion are pretty awful. The drawings for these stoves are available on my website in the Library.





From: Stoves [mailto:stoves-bounces at lists.bioenergylists.org] On Behalf Of Tom Miles
Sent: 4-Dec-17 07:07
To: 'Discussion of biomass cooking stoves' <stoves at lists.bioenergylists.org <mailto:stoves at lists.bioenergylists.org> >
Subject: Re: [Stoves] Thai Bucket Stove




Good digging. Laurie Childers may have been involved in the Thai-Kenya connection. She was the potter from Eugene who worked on the KCJ and on the popular Anagi stove. She presented some of her work at ETHOS in a session that focused on ceramics and kilns. 





From: Stoves [mailto:stoves-bounces at lists.bioenergylists.org] On Behalf Of Crispin Pemberton-Pigott
Sent: Sunday, December 03, 2017 2:04 PM
To: Discussion of biomass cooking stoves <stoves at lists.bioenergylists.org <mailto:stoves at lists.bioenergylists.org> >
Subject: Re: [Stoves] Thai Bucket Stove


Thanks, Tom for the great additions.


In the early stage of the IKJ it was apparent that the ceramic component was going to be the major hurdle. The acknowledgements page in the 1983 report by Maxwell Kinyanjui and Laurie Childers has this:


That says there was an educational tour to Thailand.


Hugh Allen was hired by ATI (Washington) but I am not clear if he started with CARE or ended up with them. In his book “The Kenyan Ceramic Jiko – A manual for stove makers” (IT Publications, 1991) he says the production system present was developed between 1986-1988.   The book is contained in the AT Microfiche Library from Volunteers in Asia. IT Publications, ATI and CARE are credited for the book.


I think Hugh was a ceramics engineer because he had studied ceramics under the son of world famous Bernard Leach – the British Potter. Hugh told me the reason he was contracted to work on the stove was the difficulty in getting reliable results from the kilns: losses of something like 40% were normal in the firing. 


He developed the low tech Jigger Jolly and forming tools, standardized the hole pattern and gave comprehensive instructions about how to develop the clay content and fire them. He introduced dome-topped kilns and spread the production technology to the Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Togo, Malawi and Rwanda. In short he “professionalized” the product, bringing firing losses down to 3%. Later he led the same type of exercise with the Bielenberg sunflower oil press which inspired me greatly.


Footnote 2 reads:







We hope that Robert recovers. I have had many informative exchanges with him over the years. He may have informed this group about the Thai bucket and the KCJ. I’ll have to look at the early archives (1996-2000). 


Thanks Teddy for the KCJ history. 

See also: http://www.solutions-site.org/node/50 <https://eur01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.solutions-site.org%2Fnode%2F50&data=02%7C01%7Ccrispinpigott%40outlook.com%7Ca4234e86739e4192671308d53a8adfb1%7C84df9e7fe9f640afb435aaaaaaaaaaaa%7C1%7C0%7C636479290492647116&sdata=19Fd57moiKctwoIs%2FHauUv%2FTIxUzc9z%2Bk6nfxK3CEiI%3D&reserved=0> 


The Eindhoven group may be able to shed some light on the origins of the KCJ. It wasn’t that long ago (2006?) that Dean Still gathered Piet Visser, and KK Prasad, and P Verhaart at an ETHOS meeting. 


This takes us back to some thoughtful work on stoves:


What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Stoves? A Comparative International Review of Stove Programs Douglas F. Barnes, Keith Openshaw, Kirk R. Smith, and Robert van der Plas, WORLD BANK TECHNICAL PAPER NUMBER 242 ENERGY SERIES. 1994


There may be a clue in a 1982 review of the Thai ceramic stove cited in that review:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02904586 <https://nam04.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2FBF02904586&data=02%7C01%7Ccrispinpigott%40outlook.com%7C56b8c62765c2448e29b408d53aa2e175%7C84df9e7fe9f640afb435aaaaaaaaaaaa%7C1%7C0%7C636479393593924759&sdata=OBqTY%2FuUyAaF655r0GJA4Y7lqAfq9s6qGmqx97xd9qE%3D&reserved=0> 

The performance of Thai charcoal stove 

P D DUNN, P SAMOOTSAKORN and N JOYCE Department of Engineering, University of Reading~ U.K. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Engg. Sci.), Vol. 5, Pt. 4, December 1982, pp. 361-372. t~) Printed in India


Or in Keith Openshaw’s 1979 review:

Openshaw, Keith. 1979. "A Comparison of Metal and Clay Charcoal Cooking Stoves." Paper presented at the Conference on Energy and Environment in East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.


And in 1982:

Openshaw, Keith. 1982. "The Development of Improved Cooking Stoves for Urban and Rural Households in Kenya." Stockholm: The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


There were several projects underway in Kenya during the 1980-1987 time period. A few people I have met have told stories about the early development of the KCJ. One Canadian told me that shortly after it was introduced it appeared in all sizes in the markets without regard to dimensions and air hole suited to the size or capacity. A ceramicist from Eugene, Oregon, contributed at some point. 


The Barnes et. al paper has a long list of stoves projects that were active at the time. It was cited in a paper presented by Tom Reed and Ron Larson in 1996 at a thermochemical conference in Banff, Canada. 

http://stoves.bioenergylists.org/content/wood-gas-stove <https://eur01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fstoves.bioenergylists.org%2Fcontent%2Fwood-gas-stove&data=02%7C01%7Ccrispinpigott%40outlook.com%7Ca4234e86739e4192671308d53a8adfb1%7C84df9e7fe9f640afb435aaaaaaaaaaaa%7C1%7C0%7C636479290492647116&sdata=hXQgwvCboIrOsn%2BkklL5dO%2FutYVALy1BTeMMT%2B5XMRA%3D&reserved=0> 


My conversations with Tom, Ron, and Mark Bryden at that conference led to the creation of this discussion list as an outgrowth of earlier (1994) bioenergy and gasification lists that I hosted. Ron became the list moderator and the Kenya group was active. Early discussions on the list, which Robert contributed to, included stoves like the KCJ and Thai bucket. Mark, Dean, and Larry Winiarsky started  ETHOS in about 2000, the same year as the Pune stoves conference hosted by the Karves.) We look forward to continuing the stoves “conversation” at ETHOS Jan 26-28.

http://www.ethoscon.com/2018-registration/ <https://eur01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ethoscon.com%2F2018-registration%2F&data=02%7C01%7Ccrispinpigott%40outlook.com%7Ca4234e86739e4192671308d53a8adfb1%7C84df9e7fe9f640afb435aaaaaaaaaaaa%7C1%7C0%7C636479290492647116&sdata=cV2%2FjOvCC3oBkzzsjDzLn2tStQ1N3QdmUSYPKf0nb68%3D&reserved=0> 




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