[Gasification] Naphthalene Condensate Photos, GAST methodology

Thomas Koch tk at tke.dk
Mon Apr 24 13:52:29 CDT 2017

Dear Gasification Nerds

I worked intensively in development of tar free gasification from 1987 to 2006-7-8 in Denmark.

I started together with the Viking Gasifier at Denmarks Technical University.

We had a concept working in a few different designs.

It basically consisted of a pyrolysis followed by a combustion followed by a stratified char bed.

There a lot of contradicting technical demands to make such a concept working.

I have tried to summarise the technical findings in this presentation.


In this presentation I have tried to explain why it is difficult to get small scale gasifiers to work.

Feel free to get inspired.

I will be very happy to answer questions.

Best regards

Thomas Koch

TK Energy ApS

Fra: Gasification [gasification-bounces at lists.bioenergylists.org] på vegne af Doug [doug.williams.nz at gmail.com]
Sendt: 24. april 2017 10:53
Til: gasification at lists.bioenergylists.org
Emne: Re: [Gasification] Naphthalene Condensate Photos, GAST methodology

Hi Nico and Colleagues,

Thanks for replying as it always helps to see see where knowledge is coming from, and help explain why gasifiers have failed projects across their implementation history. At my stage of life, it's about finding the missing pieces of information, not using copious amounts of data collected from malfunctioning or poorly design gasifiers, although this may be important to others.

First up, New Zealand where I live isn't Australia, and you could set off WW3 mixing up your Geography. Not sure they teach that anymore(:-)

I'm not know for two line replies, so take your time to take in a word picture.

However you write it, 2 microns  MP2 is the soot particle size in question, and you consider it to be not filterable from oil, even if introduced from a gasifier. So what are we talking about, filters for the oil or filters for the gas?  The physics of gas particle filtration is clearly laid out in  Perry and Chiltons Chemical Engineers Hand Book,  published by McGraw Hill, and there you will see that , MP2 can be removed by granular bed filters.

Smaller sub-micron particles need cooling to the point of moisture fogging or misting, so that it condenses on the particle and it drops out by precipitation. If we freeze the gas stream to remove all moisture, then your gas will become dry and clean.  Tom T. shows this at Thermagenics, and as Harrie showed in his photo, Naphthalene can also be removed. Refrigerated gas cooling still has to be proven for it's use in the Worlds differing environments, solving specific problems, but not tar.

Oil will protect the engine in normal clean producer gas operation, "IF" oil moisture levels are minimal, normal combustion temperatures are maintained, and it stays withing it's viscosity range. That is all most manufactures require for reliable engine operation. The oil additive package contains anti oxidants to suppress asphalt and resins from forming when heated, seen usually on the inside and outside of pistons walls and ring grooves, as brown or black deposits. This additive also has a second function of being the extreme high pressure boundary lubricant, forming an organic metallic skin on the base metal. Unnatural engine temperatures quickly deplete the boundary lubricant function and metal to metal contact wrecks the engine. In addition to heat oxidation, there is also catalytic oxidation caused by trace metals in the oil, either one is detectable by Blotter Spot testing.

The second additive is the detergent dispersant or alkalinity of the oil (TBN) which keeps the soot in the oil in suspension, preventing it from forming larger particles MP15 which drop out as sludge.
If moisture is present in the gas, it rapidly depletes the alkalinity. Standard engine oil filters in general have a MP10 porosity membrane mainly for the purpose of trapping abrasives down to MP2 where it no longer can span the lubrication film. Air filters also reduce environmental dust and there are many variations to designs. A Blotter Spot will show detergent activity.

The amount of dust or carbon will eventually thicken the oil viscosity affecting oil pressure and reduce flows through the filter membrane, so a by-pass valve opens and unfiltered oil circulates. Moisture in the gas can quickly reduce the alkalinity and it will also carry sub-micron carbon soot which will increase the viscosity. The oil companies say you can thicken oil by 30% before changing, so how can that MP2 or smaller soot be controlled? Many engine makers install a By-Pass filters that take a small flow of oil pressure not used by the engine and it passes through a dense cellulose medium. The cellulose has an affinity for moisture so the TBN is either slower to decline, or stays within usable range to prevent acid erosion of the engine metals. These filters eventually fill and in changing them, you only discard the dirtiest oil in the engine.  Blotter Spot tests show both thickening density and moisture, but a Crackle tests will pick up moisture before the blotter in most cases.

All of the above is as basic as possible in explanation, compressing oil company oil screen testing procedures for used oil. Fluidyne supplied By-Pass filters to many truck fleets in New Zealand with support from Caltex Oil Laboratories, from 1974-1983 when our manufacturing changed over to Gasifiers.

 I see you recommend a 15 year long life oil for gasified engines. Before offering such advanced oils for you gasified projects, you should see how that affects your engine makers warranties for the equipment you hope to supply.

To discuss engine failures needs supportive information as to how they failed. The engine maker becomes a victim of bad gas making technology, much the same as a good specified fuel gasifier making tar with the wrong fuel. We should start another discussion on gasified  engine failure, as I have seen a few.

Doug Williams,

 On 24/04/17 09:02, Cerni wrote:
hello all Readers,

we can provide syngas analysis over the last 4 years and real life  operation data

for that gentleman in Australia inquirying about PM 2 MP 2 this is the particulate matter smaller than 2'5 nanometers, we invert letter often in latin countries, the correct spell is PM 2 , and it is the  plague of european urban centers, whereas PM 10 is easily monitored and can be partially prevented, in Stuttgart Germany for example they wash out urban roads  every second night, the origin is still heating oil burners for residentail heat and of course diesel truck engines emissions, Padania plains in N Italy are dramatically affected...... city gas is NOT the solution,

as to the CHP cogen engines oil inspection glass, darkening is not only a chemical issue my friend, it has very much to do with epytaxial growth in hubs and cylinders inner chambers, and no gasifier  filter today can get rid of enough PM 2 to avoid this...
how do you measure PM 2???


Inviato da iPad,
Nicolo Cerni
0039 340.830.67.97 pls sms me or skype nico_cerni

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