[Digestion] Innocualtion

Gasan Osojnik gasan.osojnik at gmail.com
Wed Oct 6 02:50:33 PDT 2010


Dear Edvard

Regarding the yeast supplementation we have been talking about my coleague
has responded with some crude numbers: The biogas yield has increased with
the yeast supplementation  in the renge of 100 l of biogas / kg of added
COD.

The maxiumum concentration of yeast effluent  the UASB reactor was 1 vol%,
as the overflow of the methanogenic biomass from was noticed in the UASB
outflow at higher concentrations. CSTR.wise, these concentrations are
normally higher, as are the retention times.

BR, Gasan


On 6 October 2010 11:26, <digestion-request at lists.bioenergylists.org> wrote:

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> Today's Topics:
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>   1. Re: 1. Re: Inoculation for Small Digesters (Alexander Eaton)
>   2. Re: Attachment to previous Article - More scientific based
>      research and questions (Anand Karve)
>   3. Re: size and cost of a small domestic biogas plant (Duncan Martin)
>   4. Re: Eliminating Sulfides. (Igor ?krjanec)
>
>
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------
>
> Message: 1
> Date: Tue, 5 Oct 2010 10:45:18 -0600
> From: Alexander Eaton <alex at sistemabiobolsa.com>
> To: For discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
>        <digestion at listserv.repp.org>
> Subject: Re: [Digestion] 1. Re: Inoculation for Small Digesters
> Message-ID:
>        <AANLkTikAsjbvk4LOv5GLvgPkz9rt0Xop6OBUUqdDpnye at mail.gmail.com>
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
>
> Thanks Peter.  This is how this thread started: we use paunch manure from
> the first unit, but it is a stinky job, and not super easy to transport.
> This is only an issue as we are ramping our installations up to 5-10 per
> week.  I was hoping to find a comparably effective method that maybe
> cultured the same bacteria, or at least concentrated the stomach material.
> Any thoughts?
>
> A
>
> On Mon, Oct 4, 2010 at 5:56 AM, P M Allison <pmallison at optusnet.com.au
> >wrote:
>
> > For an excellent AD starter culture I have used the contents of a freshly
> > slaughtered cow's stomach, preferably the first unit which contains the
> > methano-bacteria, rather than the others.
> > I have also trialed septic tank biological cultures in dried and pelleted
> > forms as long as anaerobes are part of the cultural mix.
> > Peter.
> > ____________________________________
> > Digestion mailing list
> > Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >
> >
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> > Beginner's Guide to Biogas
> > http://www.adelaide.edu.au/biogas/
> > Biogas Wiki http://biogas.wikispaces.com/
> > http://info.bioenergylists.org
> >
>
>
>
> --
> Alexander Eaton
> Sistema Biobolsa
> IRRI-Mexico
>
> Mex cel: (55) 11522786
> US cel: 970 275 4505
>
> alex at sistemabiobolsa.com
> alexanderb.eaton at gmail.com
> sistemabiobolsa.com
> www.irrimexico.org
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> http://www.adelaide.edu.au/biogas/
> Biogas Wiki http://biogas.wikispaces.com/
> http://info.bioenergylists.org
>
>
>
> ------------------------------
>
> Message: 2
> Date: Wed, 6 Oct 2010 08:47:18 +0800
> From: Anand Karve <adkarve at gmail.com>
> To: paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au, For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
>        <digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> Subject: Re: [Digestion] Attachment to previous Article - More
>        scientific based research and questions
> Message-ID:
>        <AANLkTikiegvQRR3HowhYq5PM6hXsws+vrR6bH57PXCCo at mail.gmail.com<AANLkTikiegvQRR3HowhYq5PM6hXsws%2BvrR6bH57PXCCo at mail.gmail.com>
> >
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="windows-1252"
>
> Dear Hooroo,
> our ARTI biogas system produces about 800 litres or 0.8 cubic meters biogas
> from 1 kg (dry weight) of food waste. It takes about 500 litres (0.5 cubic
> m) to generate one kW electricity, if one uses an internal combustion
> engine
> to drive the generator.  The article reproduced by you says that 3 tons of
> food waste produces enough power to provide electricity to 25 houses for a
> day. Assuming that the food waste mentioned in the article has about 50%
> water, the three tons are reduced to a dry weight of 1.5 tons, which would
> produce, in a single phase ARTI biogas plant, about 1,200,000 litres or
> 1200
> cubic meters of biogas, enough to generate about 2400 kW electricity. It is
> unfortunate that the article reproduced by you does not give figures, but I
> thnk that with food waste as rqw material, the ARTI biogas system might
> turn
> out to be more efficient in converting food waste into biogas. There are
> also factual mistakes in the article reproduced by you. It says that there
> are no methane producing bacteria in the human gut. This is not true. The
> methanogens are found in the guts of all animals. I also question the
> concept of a series of organisms converting cellulose to starch to sugar to
> organic acids to acetic acid to methane. An organism needs extra-cellular
> digestion only in the case of cellulose. Once it gets converted into
> glucose, it is taken into the cell and metabolised to the end by one and
> the
> same micro-organism.
> Yours
> A.D.Karve
>
> On Wed, Oct 6, 2010 at 6:08 AM, Paul Harris <paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au
> >wrote:
>
> >  G?day All,
> >
> >
> >
> > A couple of people have asked for the attachment to an article I reposted
> > for Dhanesh Kumar [daquab4u at gmail.com]. I left it off thinking it had
> > exceeded the Listserver size limit but will try again.
> >
> >
> >
> > Happy Digesting,
> >
> > HOOROO
> > Turning Trash Into Power
> > Biological Engineers Generate Natural Gas with Bacteria
> >
> > *October 1, 2006* ? A new kind of waste digester uses two different
> > strains of bacteria in different tanks. This would normally take place in
> > the same environment, but microbiologists have now separated it into two
> > stages that increases natural-gas production. The technology increases
> > efficiency and can turn three tons of food scraps into enough energy to
> > power 25 homes for a day.
> >  ------------------------------
> >
> > *See also:*
> >
> > *Plants & Animals* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/>
> >
> >    - Extreme Survival<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/extreme_survival/>
> >    - Bacteria <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/bacteria/
> >
> >
> > *Earth & Climate* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/>
> >
> >    - Energy and the Environment<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/energy/>
> >    - Renewable Energy<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/renewable_energy/>
> >
> > *Matter & Energy* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/>
> >
> >    - Electricity<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/electricity/>
> >    - Organic Chemistry<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/organic_chemistry/>
> >
> > *Reference* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/>
> >
> >    - Biodegradation<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/b/biodegradation.htm>
> >    - Waste management<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/w/waste_management.htm>
> >    - Biomass <http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/b/biomass.htm>
> >    - Sewage treatment<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/s/sewage_treatment.htm>
> >
> > DAVIS, Calif. -- There's a new twist on the old adage, one man's trash is
> > another man's treasure. Now that trash may be another man's power.
> > Researchers in California are turning garbage into bio-gas that may one
> day
> > provide the electricity in your home.
> >
> > Trash could soon be powering your home. A new digester can transform it
> > into energy. It uses two strains of bacteria to convert waste into
> bio-gas.
> > Most digesters store both bacteria in the same tank, which makes the
> process
> > unpredictable and slow. But not this digester.
> >
> > "Zhang's process takes the two bacteria and separates them into two
> > separate environments," Dave Konwinski, the director of OnSite Power
> Systems
> > in Davis, Calif., tells DBIS.
> >
> > This new and improved digester is the brain child of Biological Engineer
> > Ruihong Zhang. She and her students at UC Davis first built its prototype
> in
> > the lab. She's thrilled her new technology is being put to use in the
> real
> > world.
> >
> > "It's a new technology ... So it's like a child grow into adult," she
> says.
> >
> >
> > The digester will turn three tons of food scraps into energy for 25
> houses
> > a day. But it's not just for homes. The digester could be especially
> useful
> > to fuel processing plants. It s scheduled to be up and running this fall.
> > OnSite Power Systems plans to market it in several states in the next
> couple
> > of years, including California, Wisconsin and Minnesota.
> >
> > "We can actually scale a digester to fit their current operations, fill
> it
> > right at their operations, take the waste stream into the digester, and
> the
> > energy right back into the plant," Konwinski says. "It will make a
> > substantial dent in our current energy requirement for petroleum."
> >
> > It's a win-win-win situation for the environment, industry and consumers.
> >
> > *BACKGROUND:* Environmental engineers at the University of California,
> > Davis, are building a full-scale anaerobic digester that can convert any
> > type of solid organic waste into electricity -- even leftovers from
> > restaurants. The system is part of the $100,000 Sacramento Municipal
> Utility
> > District (SMUD pilot project), but an even larger digester system is
> being
> > put into place in San Francisco.
> >
> > *HOW IT WORKS:* In the process, food waste is collected from restaurants
> > and institutions and then fed to bacteria that thrive in low-oxygen
> > environments. It's called anaerobic digestion, a naturally occurring
> process
> > of decomposition. One type of bacteria turns carbohydrates into simple
> > sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. A second group of bacteria eats
> those
> > compounds and turns them into hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and acetic
> acid
> > -- the primary component of vinegar. Then a third group of bacteria takes
> > those broken-down compounds and turns them into methane and carbon
> dioxide.
> > Between 60 and 80 percent becomes methane. The methane can be used as
> fuel
> > for an internal combustion engine that provides electricity.
> >
> > *TYPES OF DIGESTION:* Anaerobic digestion is not the same thing as human
> > digestion, since the type of bacteria that produce methane don't live in
> the
> > human digestive tract. Industrial anaerobic digesters can also harness
> this
> > natural process to treat waste, provide heat, and increase nutrients in
> > soil. They are most commonly used for sewage treatment and for managing
> > animal waste.
> >
> > *BENEFITS:* The goal of SMUD is to obtain 20 percent of its electricity
> > from renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biodegradable matter by
> > 2011. Currently SMUD derives 10 percent of its electricity from renewable
> > sources, of which biomass accounts for 2.5 percent. The UC-Davis digester
> > would keep food and other biodegradable waste out of landfills; food
> > leftovers account for 18 percent of a landfill's contents. One tone of
> > leftover food can produce enough fuel to power 18 homes for one day.
> >
> > *WHAT ARE EXTREMOPHILES?* An extremophile is any microbe that thrives in
> > extreme conditions, such as temperature (extreme heat or cold), pressure,
> > salinity, low oxygen environments, or high concentrations of hostile
> > chemicals. Most extremophiles belong to a class known as archaeobacteria,
> > but certain species of worm, crustacean and krill can also be considered
> > extremophiles.
> >
> > *The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.<
> http://www.ieeeusa.org/>,
> > contributed to the information contained in the TV portion of this
> report.
> > *
> >
> >
> >
> > [image: http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/ivanhoe.gif]<
> http://www.ivanhoe.com/ftk>
> >
> > *Note:** This story and accompanying video were originally produced for
> > the American Institute of Physics series Discoveries and Breakthroughs in
> > Science <http://www.aip.org/dbis/> by Ivanhoe Broadcast News and are
> > protected by copyright law. All rights reserved.*
> >
> >
> >
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> >
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> >
> >
> > *Waste to Energy<
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> >
> > *
> > Converting waste to energy Turn waste into fuel
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> >
> > Related Stories
> > ------------------------------
> >
> > *New 'Digester' Converts Garbage To Energy<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041012093158.htm>
> > * (October 12, 2004) ? UC Davis bioenvironmental engineer Ruihong Zhang
> > sees a vast untapped resource in lawn clippings, household table scraps
> and
> > other biodegradable materials: enough energy to keep the lights burning
> in
> > ...  > *read more*<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041012093158.htm>
> >
> > [image:
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2010/04/100414083539-thumb.jpg]<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
> > *New Super Bacterium Doubles Hydrogen Gas Production<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
> > * (April 14, 2010) ? Hydrogen gas is today used primarily for
> > manufacturing chemicals, but a bright future is predicted for it as a
> > vehicle fuel in combination with fuel cells. In order to produce hydrogen
> > gas in a way ...  > *read more*<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
> >
> > *Synthesizing Gas, Making Energy<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070911155512.htm>
> > * (September 12, 2007) ? A way to convert natural gas into raw materials
> > for the chemical industry and generate power as a by-product could lead
> to
> > more environmental benign manufacturing processes. Making synthesis gas
> -- a
> > ...  > *read more*<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070911155512.htm>
> >
> > *Sweet Smell Of Success: New UF System Helps Dairy Farms Reduce Odors<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/11/001122183221.htm>
> > * (November 24, 2000) ? With hundreds or thousands of cows eating,
> > drinking and, well, doing what cows do naturally, dairy farms have earned
> a
> > reputation for bad odors. Combine that with urban sprawl that brings city
> > ...  > *read more*<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/11/001122183221.htm>
> >
> > *Storing Green Electricity as Natural Gas<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100505113227.htm>
> > * (May 5, 2010) ? Renewable electricity can be transformed into a
> > substitute for natural gas. Until now, electricity was generated from
> gas.
> > Now, a German-Austrian cooperation wants to go in the opposite direction.
> In
> > ...  > *read more*<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100505113227.htm>
> >  Search ScienceD <http://www.sciencedaily.com/subscribe/>
> >
> > Mr. Paul Harris, Room S116b, Waite Main Building Faculty of Sciences, The
> > University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB 1, Glen Osmond SA 5064 Ph    :
> +61
> > 8 8303 7880      Fax   : +61 8 8303 4386
> > mailto:paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au <paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au>
> > http://www.adelaide.edu.au/directory/paul.harris
> >
> >
> >
> > CRICOS Provider Number 00123M
> >
> > This email message is intended only for the addressee(s) and contains
> > information that may be confidential and/or copyright.  If you are not
> the
> > intended recipient please notify the sender by reply email and
> immediately
> > delete this email. Use, disclosure or reproduction of this email by
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> > _______________________________________________
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> >
> >
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >
> >
>
>
> --
> ***
> Dr. A.D. Karve
> President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)
>
> *Please change my email address in your records to: adkarve at gmail.com *
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>
> ------------------------------
>
> Message: 3
> Date: Wed, 6 Oct 2010 08:05:22 +0100
> From: Duncan Martin <duncanjmartin at gmail.com>
> To: For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
>        <digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> Subject: Re: [Digestion] size and cost of a small domestic biogas
>        plant
> Message-ID:
>        <AANLkTimykuvh_x2D7jhcpZz0sfXF=QWPM4EkEwJM+aeS at mail.gmail.com<QWPM4EkEwJM%2BaeS at mail.gmail.com>
> >
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
>
> A typo I think - or has the Law of Conservation of Mass been repealed?
>
> " Using daily 1 kg (dry weight) food waste produces daily about 700 to 800
> kg biogas" !
>
> Maybe 7-800 litres?
>
> Duncan Martin
> Cloughjordan Ecovillage
> Ireland
>
>
>
> On 4 October 2010 07:47, Anand Karve <adkarve at gmail.com> wrote:
>
> > Dear Members,
> > this question was raised in a recent flurry of messages. Instead of
> > repeating them, I  wish to state the following:
> >  Using daily 1 kg (dry weight) food waste produces daily about 700 to 800
> > kg biogas, which most small families (4 to 5 persons) find quite adequate
> > for cooking all their meals. Our biogas plant has a digester of 1000
> litres
> > and a moving drum type of a gas holder having a capacity of about 750
> > litres. The  cost of complete biogas plant is about US$200, if it is
> > manufactured according instructions contained in our video which can be
> > downloaded from our web site www.arti-india.org by paying us US$10
> through
> > Pay Pal. The matter was also discussed if yeast had beneficial effect on
> > biogas production. Frankly, I do not see why and how yeast should benefit
> > the process. Yeast would actually act as a competitor of the methanogens
> in
> > that the sugar that would normally have produced biogas, would be used by
> > the yeast in producing alcohol. It is likely that alcohol can act as
> > substrate for the methanogens (glycerin, which is an alcohol,  can be
> used
> > by the methanogens as a substrate), but a lot of energy would be wasted
> in
> > this process in comparison to obtaining methane directly from the sugars
> by
> > using the methanogens.
> > Yours
> > A.D.Karve
> > --
> > ***
> > Dr. A.D. Karve
> > President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)
> >
> > *Please change my email address in your records to: adkarve at gmail.com *
> >
> >
> > _______________________________________________
> > Digestion mailing list
> > Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >
> >
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >
> >
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>
> ------------------------------
>
> Message: 4
> Date: Wed, 06 Oct 2010 11:25:47 +0200
> From: Igor ?krjanec <igor.skrjanec at gmail.com>
> To: For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
>        <digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> Subject: Re: [Digestion] Eliminating Sulfides.
> Message-ID: <4CAC409B.9010903 at gmail.com>
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="windows-1252"; Format="flowed"
>
>  Na 5.10.2010 23:57, Ken Calvert je pisal:
> > Igor,  to my way of thinking, the use of ferric chloride is expensive,
> > because it is difficult to recover out of the system and you have to
> > keep buying more.  I am not sure quite where you intend to use it?  If
> > you are adding it to the input into the digester  it will settle
> > inside and gradually clog your system.   For me, the best filter
> > system is
> > a heavy steel, or a plastic drum  filled with bashed up rusty tin
> > cans.  Make sure they are rusty, because new ones are still coated
> > with a varnish that they use instead of the old tin plate.  Place the
> > iron oxide filter between the digester and the flexy gas bag for
> > storage.  This makes for an even rate of flow with enough moisture in
> > the gas to activate the reaction.  The H2S in the gas reacts with the
> > metalic iron or iron oxide and makes iron sulfide.   When nearly all
> > the oxide has gone, and the only way to be really sure is to have two
> > drums in parallel and switch from one to the other at regular
> > intervals,  all that is required to regenerate that drum is to open it
> > to the air.
> > In the presence of oyygen ferrous sulfide reverts to metalic iron and
> > elemental sulfur, along with the evolution of a lot of heat  With a
> > heavy steel drum that is no problem, you just hook a small blower onto
> > one outlet.   With a plastic drum its a case of just opening the inlet
> > and outlet .and positioning the drum in such a way that the heat will
> > cause a convention flow of hot air.  And if the drum gets too hot
> > reduce the air current.  With all the iron back into its metalic state
> > the drum is ready for recycle, until there is so much flowers of
> > sulfur that every thing gets clogged up.    ATB.  Ken C.
> >
> >     ----- Original Message -----
> >     *From:* Igor ?krjanec <mailto:igor.skrjanec at gmail.com>
> >     *To:* For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
> >     <mailto:digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> >     *Sent:* Wednesday, October 06, 2010 12:55 AM
> >     *Subject:* Re: [Digestion] (no subject)
> >
> >     Na 4.10.2010 20:15, Arturo ?valos je pisal:
> >>
> >>     Hello all
> >>
> >>     Does someone know something about use ferric chloride to reduce
> >>     the sulfur content in the biogas?
> >>
> >>     Thanks for the information
> >>
> >>     //
> >>
> >>     Arturo
> >>
> >>
> >>     _______________________________________________
> >>     Digestion mailing list
> >>     Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >
> >     Hallo Arturo
> >
> >
> >     Ferric chloride is normally use for a neutralizations of H_2 S.
> >     Hydrogen sulfide is slightly soluble in water and acts as a weak
> >     acid <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weak_acid>, because of this is
> >     harmful for a CHP unit.
> >
> >     H_2 S is a product of sulfate-reducing bacteria
> >     <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfate-reducing_bacteria> which are
> >     also present in biogas reactor. Sulfate-reducing bacteria
> >     <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfate-reducing_bacteria> use
> >     present sulfats from substrates to oxidize the organic matter.
> >
> >     Hydrogen sulfide reacts with metal ions to form metal sulfides
> >     <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfide> (H_2 S + FeCl_2 ? FeS + 2
> >     HCl). Iron sulfide is not soluble and it is not problematic for a
> >     biogas process and CHP unit.
> >
> >     When biogas plant works normally hydrogen sulfide is not
> >     problematic, because of its oxidation with aerobic bacteria to
> >     elementary sulphur.
> >
> >
> >     Bye
> >
> >     Igor
> >
> >
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
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> >     Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >     http://lists.bioenergylists..org/mailman/listinfo/
> digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >
> >
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> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
>
> Hello Ken,
>
> In Europe we use ferric chloride only in start-up. After month or two
> you don?t need FeCL_2 anymore, because we blowing into reactor small
> quantity of air. This is obligatory for aerobic bacteria which convert
> H_2 S in to elemental sulfur. This method is also efficient, cheap and
> easy to handle.
>
> Normally you need for 1 MW biogas plant around 0,5 m^3 FeCl_2. Because
> of low quantity of FeCL_2 we don?t haw any problems with sediment FeS
> and also this low concentracion of FeS are welcom as a fertilizer.
>
> Igor
>
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