[Digestion] Attachment to previous Article - More scientific based research and questions

christian riu lohri riu.lohri at gmail.com
Thu Oct 7 05:17:49 PDT 2010

Dear Alexander and all others,

I have followed the discussion about the ARTI-systems and might be able to
contribute some relevant information based on a scientific research which I
conducted in 2008. The "Solid Waste Management"-group of Sandec (Water and
Sanitation in Developing Countries), a department within Eawag (Swiss
Federal Institute for Aquatic Sciences and Technology) identified the
different small-scale digesters in developing countries which use food and
market waste as feedstock (*). ARTI was one of the systems encountered but
it became apparent that there is a lack of scientific data related to this

As BSc-student of Environmetal Engineering at the University of Applied
Science in Zurich and in cooperation with Sandec, I conducted my Bachelor
Thesis with the following aim: *To evaluate the suitability of the
ARTI-systems as a decentralized low-tech treatment option for the organic
fraction of household waste in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania*. The results in this
report cover some of the questions raised in this Forum (gas production and
composition, TS, VS & COD-reduction, N, P, weaknesses etc.) and can be
downloaded at:

I hope this report can be helpful in clarifying some of the discussed

Kind regards,
Christian Lohri
MSc-student in Environmental Technology
Wageningen University

(*) This and other reports (e.g. Evaluation of ARTI-system at *institutional
level* in Tanzania) can be found here:
the section "Organic Waste Management")

2010/10/7 Alexander Eaton <alex at sistemabiobolsa.com>

> Dr Karve,
> Your innovation and work in the field is quite appreciated, and your system
> really opens doors for us who are also not technically focused in the
> biology of biogas, but rather its application to families and communities.
> That is why it seems your use of food waste and loading rates based on gas
> production for a family really widens the populations we may be able to work
> with globally.  Do you have a paper or document that has this data and other
> user data available?
> Best,
> Alex
> On Wed, Oct 6, 2010 at 5:40 PM, Anand Karve <adkarve at gmail.com> wrote:
>> Dear Alexnder,
>> to be quite frank, I do not call myself an expert in biogas technology. I
>> developed my system as a layman. Being a biologist, I argued that since all
>> industrial fermentation systems used sugar, why not try it in a biogas
>> plant. Because sugar was costly, I used only 1 kg sugar in a biogas plant
>> that consumed daily 40 kg cattle dung. To my surprise I found that I got
>> about 700 to 800 litres of biogas, just 24 hours later. Since sugar was
>> costly, I shifted to using flour of cereal grains, which also gave similar
>> results. Then we tested spoilt milk, oilcakes of various edible and
>> non-edible oilseeds and peels of fruits like banana, mango and papaya, and
>> got similar results. We then constructed biogas plants geared to using food
>> waste as feedstock. It was by trial and error, that we arrived at our
>> present configuration which is just a conventional moving dome biogas plant.
>> The rule of thumb is to use 1 g (dry weight) of food waste per litre of
>> digester capacity.  When I started talking about our system in conferences
>> on biogas, I used to be hooted out by the experts. Once they found out that
>> I had no theoretical knowledge of the biogas plants, they would embarass me
>> by asking questions like C:N ratio, volatile solids % etc. It was only after
>> our system received the Ashden Award in London (2006), that the world
>> started believing in me.
>> Yours
>> A.D.Karve
>>   On Thu, Oct 7, 2010 at 7:00 AM, Alexander Eaton <
>> alex at sistemabiobolsa.com> wrote:
>>> Hi Dr. Karve,
>>> I recently had the pleasure of meeting your associate and representative
>>> for Tanzania at a conference in Sweden.  He explained much of the same thing
>>> about the ARTI system.  When you describe your system as primarily a biogas
>>> generation system (as opposed to waste treatment), do you mean that you
>>> optimize HRT and loading rates for biogas production, rather than balancing
>>> biogas production with the reduction of organic load (TOC or COD?).
>>> Reviewing the plans of your systems, it does not seem as though the vessel
>>> itself holds massive differences with any other AD reactor, so can we assume
>>> that this is a management practice, versus technology comparison?
>>> Best,
>>> Alex
>>> On Wed, Oct 6, 2010 at 4:45 PM, Anand Karve <adkarve at gmail.com> wrote:
>>>> Dear Alexander,
>>>> thanks for the correction. In our system, 1 kg (dry) food waste provides
>>>> 1 kW electricity for 1 hour. I am absolutely sure of these figures, because
>>>> we are daily generating electricity on our own campus by using food waste
>>>> from our own hostel. If your calculations show our system to be 3 times as
>>>> efficient as the one reported in the article, then it must be so. All I can
>>>> claim is that our biogas production system is currently the cheapest and the
>>>> most efficient biogas system in the world. Scientists of a prestigeous
>>>> Institute of the Government of India had come to us to have a look at our
>>>> biogas system, because using the same amount of waste, our system
>>>> produced 10 times as much biogas as the two phase system developed by them.
>>>> The report submitted by them to their bosses explained the difference in the
>>>> performance of the two systems being due to the fact that their system was
>>>> primarily a waste disposal system, whereas ours was primarily a biogas
>>>> generating system. So far, we have installed about 5000 such biogas plants
>>>> all over India and also about 50 on the African continent.
>>>> Yours
>>>> A.D.Karve
>>>>   On Thu, Oct 7, 2010 at 2:47 AM, Alexander Eaton <
>>>> alex at sistemabiobolsa.com> wrote:
>>>>> Hi Dr. Karve:
>>>>> A small point, your energy conversion from gas volume to kW needs to be
>>>>> modified.  Either the gas volume needs to be presented in a daily rate,
>>>>> which therefore can be converted to power potential (kW, meaning X kW over
>>>>> the 24 hours of a day), or you need to convert a volume of biogas into kWh,
>>>>> a unit of energy.  This is important, as I am very interested in your post,
>>>>> but it does not make sense as stated, and the two possible options are very
>>>>> different.  I THINK you mean that 0.8 m3 of biogas can generate 1 kWh of
>>>>> electricity (provide 1 kW of power for 1 hour).  Is this correct?
>>>>> Also, the discrepancy between house values could be a US to the Rest of
>>>>> the World translation: the average US household uses 11,040 kWh annually, an
>>>>> average of 920 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per month, or about 30 kWh per day.
>>>>> That would means that by your calculation the food waste mentioned would
>>>>> generate enough electricity for 80 homes in the US, or more than 3 times the
>>>>> estimate in the article.  I think there may be something lost in
>>>>> translation?  What do you think?  Could it be that the ARTI system can
>>>>> produce 3 times the amount of energy as other food waste digesters?  Or are
>>>>> you not taking the energy conversion in an internal combustion engine into
>>>>> account, which would cut the raw energy value by about 3 times when
>>>>> converting to electricity?
>>>>> Best,
>>>>> A
>>>>> On Tue, Oct 5, 2010 at 6:47 PM, Anand Karve <adkarve at gmail.com> wrote:
>>>>>> Dear Hooroo,
>>>>>> our ARTI biogas system produces about 800 litres or 0.8 cubic
>>>>>> meters biogas from 1 kg (dry weight) of food waste. It takes about 500
>>>>>> litres (0.5 cubic m) to generate one kW electricity, if one uses an internal
>>>>>> combustion engine to drive the generator.  The article reproduced by you
>>>>>> says that 3 tons of food waste produces enough power to provide electricity
>>>>>> to 25 houses for a day. Assuming that the food waste mentioned in the
>>>>>> article has about 50% water, the three tons are reduced to a dry weight of
>>>>>> 1.5 tons, which would produce, in a single phase ARTI biogas plant, about
>>>>>> 1,200,000 litres or 1200 cubic meters of biogas, enough to generate about
>>>>>> 2400 kW electricity. It is unfortunate that the article reproduced by you
>>>>>> does not give figures, but I thnk that with food waste as rqw material, the
>>>>>> ARTI biogas system might turn out to be more efficient in converting food
>>>>>> waste into biogas. There are also factual mistakes in the article reproduced
>>>>>> by you. It says that there are no methane producing bacteria in the human
>>>>>> gut. This is not true. The methanogens are found in the guts of all animals.
>>>>>> I also question the concept of a series of organisms converting cellulose to
>>>>>> starch to sugar to organic acids to acetic acid to methane. An organism
>>>>>> needs extra-cellular digestion only in the case of cellulose. Once it gets
>>>>>> converted into glucose, it is taken into the cell and metabolised to the end
>>>>>> by one and the same micro-organism.
>>>>>> Yours
>>>>>> A.D.Karve
>>>>>>   On Wed, Oct 6, 2010 at 6:08 AM, Paul Harris <
>>>>>> paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au> wrote:
>>>>>>>    G’day All,
>>>>>>> A couple of people have asked for the attachment to an article I
>>>>>>> reposted for Dhanesh Kumar [daquab4u at gmail.com]. I left it off
>>>>>>> thinking it had exceeded the Listserver size limit but will try again.
>>>>>>> Happy Digesting,
>>>>>>> HOOROO
>>>>>>> Turning Trash Into Power
>>>>>>> Biological Engineers Generate Natural Gas with Bacteria
>>>>>>> *October 1, 2006* — A new kind of waste digester uses two different
>>>>>>> strains of bacteria in different tanks. This would normally take place in
>>>>>>> the same environment, but microbiologists have now separated it into two
>>>>>>> stages that increases natural-gas production. The technology increases
>>>>>>> efficiency and can turn three tons of food scraps into enough energy to
>>>>>>> power 25 homes for a day.
>>>>>>>  ------------------------------
>>>>>>> *See also:*
>>>>>>> *Plants & Animals*<http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/>
>>>>>>>    - Extreme Survival<http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/extreme_survival/>
>>>>>>>    - Bacteria<http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/bacteria/>
>>>>>>> *Earth & Climate* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/>
>>>>>>>    - Energy and the Environment<http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/energy/>
>>>>>>>    - Renewable Energy<http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/renewable_energy/>
>>>>>>> *Matter & Energy* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/>
>>>>>>>    - Electricity<http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/electricity/>
>>>>>>>    - Organic Chemistry<http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/organic_chemistry/>
>>>>>>> *Reference* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/>
>>>>>>>    - Biodegradation<http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/b/biodegradation.htm>
>>>>>>>    - Waste management<http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/w/waste_management.htm>
>>>>>>>    - Biomass <http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/b/biomass.htm>
>>>>>>>    - Sewage treatment<http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/s/sewage_treatment.htm>
>>>>>>> DAVIS, Calif. -- There's a new twist on the old adage, one man's
>>>>>>> trash is another man's treasure. Now that trash may be another man's power.
>>>>>>> Researchers in California are turning garbage into bio-gas that may one day
>>>>>>> provide the electricity in your home.
>>>>>>> Trash could soon be powering your home. A new digester can transform
>>>>>>> it into energy. It uses two strains of bacteria to convert waste into
>>>>>>> bio-gas. Most digesters store both bacteria in the same tank, which makes
>>>>>>> the process unpredictable and slow. But not this digester.
>>>>>>> "Zhang's process takes the two bacteria and separates them into two
>>>>>>> separate environments," Dave Konwinski, the director of OnSite Power Systems
>>>>>>> in Davis, Calif., tells DBIS.
>>>>>>> This new and improved digester is the brain child of Biological
>>>>>>> Engineer Ruihong Zhang. She and her students at UC Davis first built its
>>>>>>> prototype in the lab. She's thrilled her new technology is being put to use
>>>>>>> in the real world.
>>>>>>> "It's a new technology ... So it's like a child grow into adult," she
>>>>>>> says.
>>>>>>> The digester will turn three tons of food scraps into energy for 25
>>>>>>> houses a day. But it's not just for homes. The digester could be especially
>>>>>>> useful to fuel processing plants. It s scheduled to be up and running this
>>>>>>> fall. OnSite Power Systems plans to market it in several states in the next
>>>>>>> couple of years, including California, Wisconsin and Minnesota.
>>>>>>> "We can actually scale a digester to fit their current operations,
>>>>>>> fill it right at their operations, take the waste stream into the digester,
>>>>>>> and the energy right back into the plant," Konwinski says. "It will make a
>>>>>>> substantial dent in our current energy requirement for petroleum."
>>>>>>> It's a win-win-win situation for the environment, industry and
>>>>>>> consumers.
>>>>>>> *BACKGROUND:* Environmental engineers at the University of
>>>>>>> California, Davis, are building a full-scale anaerobic digester that can
>>>>>>> convert any type of solid organic waste into electricity -- even leftovers
>>>>>>> from restaurants. The system is part of the $100,000 Sacramento Municipal
>>>>>>> Utility District (SMUD pilot project), but an even larger digester system is
>>>>>>> being put into place in San Francisco.
>>>>>>> *HOW IT WORKS:* In the process, food waste is collected from
>>>>>>> restaurants and institutions and then fed to bacteria that thrive in
>>>>>>> low-oxygen environments. It's called anaerobic digestion, a naturally
>>>>>>> occurring process of decomposition. One type of bacteria turns carbohydrates
>>>>>>> into simple sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. A second group of bacteria
>>>>>>> eats those compounds and turns them into hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and
>>>>>>> acetic acid -- the primary component of vinegar. Then a third group of
>>>>>>> bacteria takes those broken-down compounds and turns them into methane and
>>>>>>> carbon dioxide. Between 60 and 80 percent becomes methane. The methane can
>>>>>>> be used as fuel for an internal combustion engine that provides electricity.
>>>>>>> *TYPES OF DIGESTION:* Anaerobic digestion is not the same thing as
>>>>>>> human digestion, since the type of bacteria that produce methane don't live
>>>>>>> in the human digestive tract. Industrial anaerobic digesters can also
>>>>>>> harness this natural process to treat waste, provide heat, and increase
>>>>>>> nutrients in soil. They are most commonly used for sewage treatment and for
>>>>>>> managing animal waste.
>>>>>>> *BENEFITS:* The goal of SMUD is to obtain 20 percent of its
>>>>>>> electricity from renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biodegradable
>>>>>>> matter by 2011. Currently SMUD derives 10 percent of its electricity from
>>>>>>> renewable sources, of which biomass accounts for 2.5 percent. The UC-Davis
>>>>>>> digester would keep food and other biodegradable waste out of landfills;
>>>>>>> food leftovers account for 18 percent of a landfill's contents. One tone of
>>>>>>> leftover food can produce enough fuel to power 18 homes for one day.
>>>>>>> *WHAT ARE EXTREMOPHILES?* An extremophile is any microbe that
>>>>>>> thrives in extreme conditions, such as temperature (extreme heat or cold),
>>>>>>> pressure, salinity, low oxygen environments, or high concentrations of
>>>>>>> hostile chemicals. Most extremophiles belong to a class known as
>>>>>>> archaeobacteria, but certain species of worm, crustacean and krill can also
>>>>>>> be considered extremophiles.
>>>>>>> *The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.<http://www.ieeeusa.org/>,
>>>>>>> contributed to the information contained in the TV portion of this report.
>>>>>>> *
>>>>>>> [image: http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/ivanhoe.gif]<http://www.ivanhoe.com/ftk>
>>>>>>> *Note:** This story and accompanying video were originally produced
>>>>>>> for the American Institute of Physics series Discoveries and
>>>>>>> Breakthroughs in Science <http://www.aip.org/dbis/> by Ivanhoe
>>>>>>> Broadcast News and are protected by copyright law. All rights reserved.
>>>>>>> *
>>>>>>> Ads by Google<http://www.google.com/url?ct=abg&q=https://www.google.com/adsense/support/bin/request.py%3Fcontact%3Dabg_afc%26url%3Dhttp://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2006/1002-turning_trash_into_power.htm%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dca-pub-1787672658759074%26adU%3Dwww.kpl.com%26adT%3DBacteria%2BAntibodies%26adU%3Dwww.catpowerplants.com%26adT%3DCaterpillar%2BPower%2BPlants%26adU%3Dknowledge.allianz.com/energy-future%26adT%3DRenewable%2BEnergy%26adU%3Dwww.greenfuels.co.uk%26adT%3DGreen%2BFuels%2B-%2BBiodiesel%26adU%3Dwww.bauerw2e.com%26adT%3DWaste%2Bto%2BEnergy%26adU%3Dwww.jeccomposites.com/jec-forums/%26adT%3DJEC%2BWind%2BEnergy%2BForum%26adU%3Dwww.konicaminolta.com%26adT%3DFuture%2BGeneration%2BEnergy%26adU%3Dwww.kytecentrifuge.com%26adT%3DTriton%2BSeparator%2B-%2BManure%26gl%3DIN&usg=AFQjCNGHSCk76nQJbn2RPmJaA54howrSRg>
>>>>>>> Advertise here<https://adwords.google.com/select/OnsiteSignupLandingPage?client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&referringUrl=http://www.sciencedaily.com/&hl=en&gl=US>
>>>>>>>  ------------------------------
>>>>>>> *Bacteria Antibodies<http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=BCoQEJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUD8PnWzwG45qvnEsCNtwHA7RoQARgBINKg9AEoCDgAUOry5pQEYOWi5YOsDrIBFHd3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tyAEB2gFJaHR0cDovL3d3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tL3ZpZGVvcy8yMDA2LzEwMDItdHVybmluZ190cmFzaF9pbnRvX3Bvd2VyLmh0bYACAagDAegDlAXoA5EF6APpAegDDOgDuAP1AwAEAEU&num=1&sig=AGiWqtyu-q25rITykg51Cs6ZSxnlkf_Ahg&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.kpl.com/catalog/categories.cfm%3FCatalog_ID%3D17%26Category_ID%3D497>
>>>>>>> *
>>>>>>> Detect salmonella, E.coli, others Specific sensitive detection
>>>>>>> www.kpl.com<http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=BCoQEJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUD8PnWzwG45qvnEsCNtwHA7RoQARgBINKg9AEoCDgAUOry5pQEYOWi5YOsDrIBFHd3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tyAEB2gFJaHR0cDovL3d3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tL3ZpZGVvcy8yMDA2LzEwMDItdHVybmluZ190cmFzaF9pbnRvX3Bvd2VyLmh0bYACAagDAegDlAXoA5EF6APpAegDDOgDuAP1AwAEAEU&num=1&sig=AGiWqtyu-q25rITykg51Cs6ZSxnlkf_Ahg&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.kpl.com/catalog/categories.cfm%3FCatalog_ID%3D17%26Category_ID%3D497>
>>>>>>> *Caterpillar Power Plants<http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=BJGjnJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUDpK6S5wGuvcmjDMCNtwHgmBcQAhgCINKg9AEoCDgAUJOChtX4_____wFg5aLlg6wOsgEUd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb23IAQHaAUlodHRwOi8vd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb20vdmlkZW9zLzIwMDYvMTAwMi10dXJuaW5nX3RyYXNoX2ludG9fcG93ZXIuaHRtyAK2h5UMqAMB6AOUBegDkQXoA-kB6AMM6AO4A_UDAAQARQ&num=2&sig=AGiWqtyVcxDzJNoChkjkCMYk4Jy0EQJI1Q&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.catpowerplants.com/opt/sweeps.asp%3Fs%3DO3WQATCM%26src>
>>>>>>> *
>>>>>>> From 2.8 to Over 100MW, Turnkey Services And Engineered Equipment
>>>>>>> www.catpowerplants.com<http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=BJGjnJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUDpK6S5wGuvcmjDMCNtwHgmBcQAhgCINKg9AEoCDgAUJOChtX4_____wFg5aLlg6wOsgEUd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb23IAQHaAUlodHRwOi8vd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb20vdmlkZW9zLzIwMDYvMTAwMi10dXJuaW5nX3RyYXNoX2ludG9fcG93ZXIuaHRtyAK2h5UMqAMB6AOUBegDkQXoA-kB6AMM6AO4A_UDAAQARQ&num=2&sig=AGiWqtyVcxDzJNoChkjkCMYk4Jy0EQJI1Q&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.catpowerplants.com/opt/sweeps.asp%3Fs%3DO3WQATCM%26src>
>>>>>>> *Renewable Energy<http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=BzuqEJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUDrPS34QH8mZbnE8CNtwGgjQYQAxgDINKg9AEoCDgAUJP7hsj9_____wFg5aLlg6wOsgEUd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb23IAQHaAUlodHRwOi8vd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb20vdmlkZW9zLzIwMDYvMTAwMi10dXJuaW5nX3RyYXNoX2ludG9fcG93ZXIuaHRtqQKSkxW80v22PsgC9KyMF6gDAegDlAXoA5EF6APpAegDDOgDuAP1AwAEAEU&num=3&sig=AGiWqtxRtTbiS9qCSy19ZwNRFpvXQcM82g&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://knowledge.allianz.com/en/globalissues/energy_co2/renewable_energy/schmuck_renewable_solar_panel_building_electricity.html%3Futm_source%3Dgoogle%26utm_medium%3Dcpc%26utm_term%3Drenewable%2520energy%2520wind_Exact%26utm_campaign%3DAllianz%2520Knowledge%2520-%2520Energy%2520and%2520CO2>
>>>>>>> *
>>>>>>> Deepen your knowledge about the energy sources of the future.
>>>>>>> knowledge.allianz.com/energy-future<http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=BzuqEJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUDrPS34QH8mZbnE8CNtwGgjQYQAxgDINKg9AEoCDgAUJP7hsj9_____wFg5aLlg6wOsgEUd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb23IAQHaAUlodHRwOi8vd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb20vdmlkZW9zLzIwMDYvMTAwMi10dXJuaW5nX3RyYXNoX2ludG9fcG93ZXIuaHRtqQKSkxW80v22PsgC9KyMF6gDAegDlAXoA5EF6APpAegDDOgDuAP1AwAEAEU&num=3&sig=AGiWqtxRtTbiS9qCSy19ZwNRFpvXQcM82g&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://knowledge.allianz.com/en/globalissues/energy_co2/renewable_energy/schmuck_renewable_solar_panel_building_electricity.html%3Futm_source%3Dgoogle%26utm_medium%3Dcpc%26utm_term%3Drenewable%2520energy%2520wind_Exact%26utm_campaign%3DAllianz%2520Knowledge%2520-%2520Energy%2520and%2520CO2>
>>>>>>> *Green Fuels - Biodiesel<http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=B8LTFJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUD5pnH1QG6ouvFC8CNtwGA8QQQBBgEINKg9AEoCDgAUMWBlbj______wFg5aLlg6wOsgEUd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb23IAQHaAUlodHRwOi8vd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb20vdmlkZW9zLzIwMDYvMTAwMi10dXJuaW5nX3RyYXNoX2ludG9fcG93ZXIuaHRtgAIBqQJVQKDCOJC6PqgDAegDlAXoA5EF6APpAegDDOgDuAP1AwAEAEU&num=4&sig=AGiWqtzDfYmhQIAUn4uZhP6UNZfgexYNGA&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.greenfuels.co.uk>
>>>>>>> *
>>>>>>> Safe, reliable, automated home and commercial biodiesel processors
>>>>>>> www.greenfuels.co.uk<http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=B8LTFJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUD5pnH1QG6ouvFC8CNtwGA8QQQBBgEINKg9AEoCDgAUMWBlbj______wFg5aLlg6wOsgEUd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb23IAQHaAUlodHRwOi8vd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb20vdmlkZW9zLzIwMDYvMTAwMi10dXJuaW5nX3RyYXNoX2ludG9fcG93ZXIuaHRtgAIBqQJVQKDCOJC6PqgDAegDlAXoA5EF6APpAegDDOgDuAP1AwAEAEU&num=4&sig=AGiWqtzDfYmhQIAUn4uZhP6UNZfgexYNGA&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.greenfuels.co.uk>
>>>>>>> *Waste to Energy<http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=Bcti8JQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUDufWgwAGJlP2KFcCNtwGw6gEQBRgFINKg9AEoCDgAUNmB3ZAFYOWi5YOsDrIBFHd3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tyAEB2gFJaHR0cDovL3d3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tL3ZpZGVvcy8yMDA2LzEwMDItdHVybmluZ190cmFzaF9pbnRvX3Bvd2VyLmh0bakCVUCgwjiQuj6oAwHoA5QF6AORBegD6QHoAwzoA7gD9QMABABF&num=5&sig=AGiWqtxR6iIGICyKNV_V_vPXI3PXBoXdog&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.bauerw2e.com>
>>>>>>> *
>>>>>>> Converting waste to energy Turn waste into fuel
>>>>>>> www.bauerw2e.com<http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=Bcti8JQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUDufWgwAGJlP2KFcCNtwGw6gEQBRgFINKg9AEoCDgAUNmB3ZAFYOWi5YOsDrIBFHd3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tyAEB2gFJaHR0cDovL3d3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tL3ZpZGVvcy8yMDA2LzEwMDItdHVybmluZ190cmFzaF9pbnRvX3Bvd2VyLmh0bakCVUCgwjiQuj6oAwHoA5QF6AORBegD6QHoAwzoA7gD9QMABABF&num=5&sig=AGiWqtxR6iIGICyKNV_V_vPXI3PXBoXdog&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.bauerw2e.com>
>>>>>>> Related Stories
>>>>>>> ------------------------------
>>>>>>> *New 'Digester' Converts Garbage To Energy<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041012093158.htm>
>>>>>>> * (October 12, 2004) — UC Davis bioenvironmental engineer Ruihong
>>>>>>> Zhang sees a vast untapped resource in lawn clippings, household table
>>>>>>> scraps and other biodegradable materials: enough energy to keep the lights
>>>>>>> burning in ...  > *read more*<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041012093158.htm>
>>>>>>> [image:
>>>>>>> http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2010/04/100414083539-thumb.jpg]<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
>>>>>>> *New Super Bacterium Doubles Hydrogen Gas Production<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
>>>>>>> * (April 14, 2010) — Hydrogen gas is today used primarily for
>>>>>>> manufacturing chemicals, but a bright future is predicted for it as a
>>>>>>> vehicle fuel in combination with fuel cells. In order to produce hydrogen
>>>>>>> gas in a way ...  > *read more*<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
>>>>>>> *Synthesizing Gas, Making Energy<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070911155512.htm>
>>>>>>> * (September 12, 2007) — A way to convert natural gas into raw
>>>>>>> materials for the chemical industry and generate power as a by-product could
>>>>>>> lead to more environmental benign manufacturing processes. Making synthesis
>>>>>>> gas -- a ...  > *read more*<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070911155512.htm>
>>>>>>> *Sweet Smell Of Success: New UF System Helps Dairy Farms Reduce
>>>>>>> Odors<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/11/001122183221.htm>
>>>>>>> * (November 24, 2000) — With hundreds or thousands of cows eating,
>>>>>>> drinking and, well, doing what cows do naturally, dairy farms have earned a
>>>>>>> reputation for bad odors. Combine that with urban sprawl that brings city
>>>>>>> ...  > *read more*<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/11/001122183221.htm>
>>>>>>> *Storing Green Electricity as Natural Gas<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100505113227.htm>
>>>>>>> * (May 5, 2010) — Renewable electricity can be transformed into a
>>>>>>> substitute for natural gas. Until now, electricity was generated from gas.
>>>>>>> Now, a German-Austrian cooperation wants to go in the opposite direction. In
>>>>>>> ...  > *read more*<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100505113227.htm>
>>>>>>>  Search ScienceD <http://www.sciencedaily.com/subscribe/>
>>>>>>> Mr. Paul Harris, Room S116b, Waite Main Building Faculty of Sciences,
>>>>>>> The  University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB 1, Glen Osmond SA 5064 Ph
>>>>>>> : +61 8 8303 7880      Fax   : +61 8 8303 4386
>>>>>>> mailto:paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au <paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au>
>>>>>>> http://www.adelaide.edu.au/directory/paul.harris
>>>>>>> CRICOS Provider Number 00123M
>>>>>>> This email message is intended only for the addressee(s) and contains
>>>>>>> information that may be confidential and/or copyright.  If you are not the
>>>>>>> intended recipient please notify the sender by reply email and immediately
>>>>>>> delete this email. Use, disclosure or reproduction of this email by anyone
>>>>>>> other than the intended recipient(s) is strictly prohibited. No
>>>>>>> representation is made that this email or any attachments are free of
>>>>>>> viruses. Virus scanning is recommended and is the responsibility of the
>>>>>>> recipient.
>>>>>>> _______________________________________________
>>>>>>> Digestion mailing list
>>>>>>> Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
>>>>>>> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
>>>>>> --
>>>>>> ***
>>>>>> Dr. A.D. Karve
>>>>>> President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)
>>>>>> *Please change my email address in your records to: adkarve at gmail.com
>>>>>> *
>>>>>> _______________________________________________
>>>>>> Digestion mailing list
>>>>>> Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
>>>>>> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
>>>>> --
>>>>> Alexander Eaton
>>>>> Sistema Biobolsa
>>>>> IRRI-Mexico
>>>>> Mex cel: (55) 11522786
>>>>> US cel: 970 275 4505
>>>>> alex at sistemabiobolsa.com
>>>>> alexanderb.eaton at gmail.com
>>>>> sistemabiobolsa.com
>>>>> www.irrimexico.org
>>>>> _______________________________________________
>>>>> Digestion mailing list
>>>>> Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
>>>>> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
>>>> --
>>>> ***
>>>> Dr. A.D. Karve
>>>> President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)
>>>> *Please change my email address in your records to: adkarve at gmail.com *
>>>> _______________________________________________
>>>> Digestion mailing list
>>>> Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
>>>> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
>>> --
>>> Alexander Eaton
>>> Sistema Biobolsa
>>> IRRI-Mexico
>>> Mex cel: (55) 11522786
>>> US cel: 970 275 4505
>>> alex at sistemabiobolsa.com
>>> alexanderb.eaton at gmail.com
>>> sistemabiobolsa.com
>>> www.irrimexico.org
>>> _______________________________________________
>>> Digestion mailing list
>>> Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
>>> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
>> --
>> ***
>> Dr. A.D. Karve
>> President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)
>> *Please change my email address in your records to: adkarve at gmail.com *
>> _______________________________________________
>> Digestion mailing list
>> Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
>> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> --
> Alexander Eaton
> Sistema Biobolsa
> IRRI-Mexico
> Mex cel: (55) 11522786
> US cel: 970 275 4505
> alex at sistemabiobolsa.com
> alexanderb.eaton at gmail.com
> sistemabiobolsa.com
> www.irrimexico.org
> _______________________________________________
> Digestion mailing list
> Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL: <http://lists.bioenergylists.org/pipermail/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org/attachments/20101007/9b6978f1/attachment.html>

More information about the Digestion mailing list