[Gasification] Sweden's trash project / Japanese trash project

Lloyd Helferty lhelferty at sympatico.ca
Sat Nov 10 16:49:10 PST 2012

In answer to Mark Ludlow's question, Where does the rest of the "trash" go?
That would probably be "up the stack" ~ i.e. == air emissions ??

In answer to John Miedema's question about "chlorides involved in the 
trash" and a possible dioxin problem?
Again, you might, depending on the TEMPS involved in the process.

   You might expect that one good way to avoid Dioxins is to avoid 
burning chlorinated plastics, i.e. PVC (Polyvinyl chloride), Chlorinated 
polyethylene (CPE), Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) etc.

   Yes, most dioxins arise in the condensed solid phase by the reaction 
of inorganic chlorides with graphitic structures in char-containing ash 
particles, with copper acting as a catalyst for these reactions, 
therefore the highest dioxin concentration is typically created by the 
/*pyrolysis*/ of PVC.

Large *incinerators* have mostly worked this out, however. The Japanese 
[and German] tech is rather good at dealing with these things.

I don't know what kind of "air emissions" controls have been put on this 
particular system, if any.

  The single most important factor in forming dioxin-like compounds is 
the temperature of the combustion gases. Oxygen concentration also plays 
a major role on dioxin formation, but *not* the chlorine content.  
Several studies have shown that removing PVC from waste would _not_ 
significantly reduce the quantity of dioxins emitted.**

The design of modern incinerators minimize dioxins by optimizing the 
*stability of the thermal process*.  The EU emission limit is 0.1 ng 
I-TEQ/m3.  Modern incinerators not only operate in conditions that 
minimize dioxin formation, but are also equipped with *pollution control 
devices* which catch the low amounts produced.

** The European Union Commission published in July 2000 a Green Paper on 
the Environmental Issues of PVC noted that, "there does not seem to be a 
direct quantitative relationship between chlorine content and dioxin 
Similarly, another study commissioned by the European Commission on 
"/Life Cycle Assessment of PVC and of principal competing materials/" 
states that "Recent studies show that the presence of PVC has _no 
significant effect_ on the amount of dioxins released through 
incineration of plastic waste."


   Lloyd Helferty, Engineering Technologist
   Principal, Biochar Consulting (Canada)
   48 Suncrest Blvd, Thornhill, ON, Canada
   CELL: 647-886-8754
      Skype: lloyd.helferty
   Steering Committee coordinator
   Canadian Biochar Initiative (CBI)
   President, Co-founder & CBI Liaison, Biochar-Ontario
   National Office, Canadian Carbon Farming Initiative (CCFI)
   Partner of Toronto Urban Ag Summit www.urbanagsummit.org
   Manager, Biochar Offsets Group:
    Advisory Committee Member, IBI

"It is the path, more than the arrival at the destination, that is important"
  - Gandhi

On 2012-11-10 12:36 PM, John Miedema wrote:
> I am curious about the chlorides involved in the trash (plastics)? 
> Would not there be a dioxin problem?
> **John Miedema****__**
> BioLogical Carbon, LLC
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> *From:*Gasification 
> [mailto:gasification-bounces at lists.bioenergylists.org] *On Behalf Of 
> *Mark Ludlow
> *Sent:* Saturday, November 10, 2012 2:24 AM
> *To:* 'Discussion of biomass pyrolysis and gasification'
> *Subject:* Re: [Gasification] Sweden's trash project / Japanese trash 
> project
> Where does the rest of the "trash" go? Just, "Somewhere"? RE: 
> Conservation of Mass.
> Mark
> *From:*Gasification 
> [mailto:gasification-bounces at lists.bioenergylists.org] *On Behalf Of 
> *Terry & Susan Layman
> *Sent:* Friday, November 09, 2012 4:08 PM
> *To:* Gasification at bioenergylists.org
> *Subject:* Re: [Gasification] Sweden's trash project / Japanese trash 
> project
> The Swedish are probably using the same system the Japanese invented.
> Leave it to the Japanese to perfect a system, that virtually elimanates
> trash. Each day Iwamoto's "Super Stone Clean Waste Treatment'' 
> <http://superstoneclean.com/waste-treatment-solutions/>processors
> can take a 20 ton pile of common garbage, and reduce it to less than 8 
> gallons
> of what they call biochar.
> Just watch their video. then you can see first hand the machine and 
> the process.
> I, wouldn't classify it as BioChar, but it looks to me like ashes.
> Reduces waste volume from 1/100th to 1/3000th of original input:
> 1,000kg waste ?300g ashes **( 2,200 lbs waste to 10.58 oz's ashes )**
> This is probably the most advanced system for Gasification.
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