[Digestion] Digestion Digest, Vol 2, Issue 20

Christine McKiernan cmckiernan93 at gmail.com
Thu Oct 7 03:52:45 PDT 2010


Re:  USA Industrial Food Derived BioGas Plants?

One other location to keep in mind is the former Microgy Huckabay, TX plant
(operating under different ownership now).  This is the largest manure food
waste co-digestion facility in the United States.  The plant routinely takes
in food wastes such as DAF floats from processors, grease trap waste, food
solids including burritos, corn dogs, vegetable and meat soup components,
etc.  The plant does not take municipal organic waste as their is no
effective program in place to source this.

There were no references to previous engineering and construction techniques
for this facility and much of it was done via pilot work beforehand or using
information gathered from Microgy's other projects elsewhere.

Per Juliette's comments on design and construction, vendors and contractors
will be your best source.

Regards,

Christine McKiernan
Director of Engineering
HMI Energy

On Wed, Oct 6, 2010 at 6:56 PM,
<digestion-request at lists.bioenergylists.org>wrote:

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> Today's Topics:
>
>   1. Re: USA Industrial Food Derived BioGas Plants? (Juliette Bohn)
>   2. Re: Attachment to previous Article - More scientific based
>      research and questions (Anand Karve)
>   3. Re: Digestion Digest, Vol 2, Issue 17 (Anand Karve)
>
>
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------
>
> Message: 1
> Date: Wed, 6 Oct 2010 12:18:22 -0700
> From: "Juliette Bohn" <jbohn at HWMA.net>
> To: "For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion"
>        <digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> Subject: Re: [Digestion] USA Industrial Food Derived BioGas Plants?
> Message-ID:
>        <33406A7A0DE2FB4F89FB2AAFF4B599EA986D74 at mailserver.HWMA.LOCAL>
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
>
> Hello all,
>
>
>
> Currently, in North America there are only a handful of food waste
> digester projects (planned and existing).  The city of Toronto has two
> stand-alone food waste digesters processing food waste from the
> residential sector.  One of them (the Newmarket plant)  has been shut
> down and re-opened at least once due to odor problems.  I am not sure if
> it is currently operating or not.  The Dufferin Organics processing
> facility (also in Toronto, Canada) has been the only stand-alone
> digester continuously operating in North America to date. They are
> currently planning to build a second digester facility and expand their
> operations.  In the US, the East Bay Municipal Utility District in
> Oakland, CA has been co-digesting commercial food waste with sewage
> sludge for the last 5 years or so. They are still in the pilot phase of
> this project (+/- 40 tpd) and are working diligently on pre-processing
> treatment trains appropriate for municipal food waste.   In Davis, CA
> there is the pilot high-rate two stage digester system - I believe
> someone else sent an article about this. They have not yet run it
> continuously, but are working to get a commercial system installed to
> prove the technology. The Inland Empire Utilities Agency has been
> co-digesting manure with food waste and fats, oils, and grease for
> awhile now.  They are now re-commissioning a waste water treatment
> digester to digest food waste. Cedar Grove composting in Washington is
> also installing a food waste digester - they have permitting completed
> and have selected a technology through the RFP process. They expect to
> break ground on the project in the near future.  There is also a project
> in southern Oregon - I just caught wind of this one - I believe it is in
> Corvallis, OR.  I think they have permitting and a technology selected
> as well.   There are a few other projects in the early planning phases,
> as well as projects that handle homogenous industrial food waste streams
> (i.e., onions or brewery wastes) if you are interested to know more,
> send me an e-mail.
>
>
>
> And last, but certainly not least, Humboldt County is working to develop
> a regional food waste digester facility. This facility is being
> developed by the Humboldt Waste Management Authority - a joint powers
> authority that manages the solid waste for the county.  I am the project
> manager for this effort. Currently, we are about to release our CEQA
> permitting documents and hope to have our permits in place early next
> year so that we can go to an RFP.  We have financing plans, a site, and
> groundswell of support from the community.  We plan to accept commercial
> and industrial food wastes in the first phase of development.  Again, if
> you wish to know more, please contact me directly.
>
>
>
> As for the heart of your question about construction methods and
> contractors/engineers used, you might try to contact the Dufferin plant
> or the Davis/On site Power group - although this information will not
> likely transfer to other sites.  The gist of the situation is that there
> are MANY digester technology vendors who want to get their toes into the
> US market.  They are willing to design/build/own & operate or any
> variation of that arrangement. Construction methods will depend on the
> system chosen (i.e. dry digesters are very different from wet, also
> different form a high solids systems etc.), as well as the facility
> site, and the application. In our case, local engineers will likely be
> utilized for the site preparation, electrical connections, and pipe
> fitting etc. The construction of the digester system itself will
> probably be handled by contractors chosen by the technology vendor.
>
>
>
> Municipal food waste digestion is spreading like wildfire here in the
> US, and it is only a matter of the early adopters getting systems off
> the ground and providing cost and operating data for the technology to
> take off.  There are carbon offset protocols in place, and in CA the
> state waste management agency (CalRecycle) is developing a programmatic
> EIR to assist in the development of increased food waste digester
> capacity.
>
>
>
> There is a lot more to tell, so if you would like to follow up, please
> feel free to contact me directly.   I am happy to talk with you about
> the project proposed for your area, as well as discuss some of the
> current technological and political discourse surrounding this type of
> development.
>
>
>
> Sincerely,
>
>
>
> Juliette
>
>
>
>
>
> Juliette Bohn
>
> Program Analyst
>
> Energy and Waste Management
>
> Humboldt Waste Management Authority
>
> 1059 W. Hawthorne St.
>
> Eureka CA, 95501
>
> (707) 268-8680
>
> From: digestion-bounces at lists.bioenergylists.org
> [mailto:digestion-bounces at lists.bioenergylists.org] On Behalf Of evans
> martin
> Sent: Monday, October 04, 2010 11:26 AM
> To: digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> Subject: [Digestion] USA Industrial Food Derived BioGas Plants?
>
>
>
> Hello,
> I was wondering if anyone would be able to tell me if there are any
> committed plans to build food derived industrial biogas plants in the
> US?
> It is my understanding that there is not much experience with this sort
> of endeavor in North America and zero precedents for America.
>
> I am looking for case studies of city-scale industrial biogas plants as
> there are developers in my area who wish to build this kind of project
> and
> I would like to assist in this effort but am having difficulty in
> locating credible North American case studies.
>
> Projects do not have to be completed and any information would be
> helpful, but I am looking for data that refers to construction methods
> and contractors/engineers used.
>
> Thank you for your time and consideration.
>
> Evans
>
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> ------------------------------
>
> Message: 2
> Date: Thu, 7 Oct 2010 06:45:14 +0800
> From: Anand Karve <adkarve at gmail.com>
> To: For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
>        <digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> Subject: Re: [Digestion] Attachment to previous Article - More
>        scientific based research and questions
> Message-ID:
>        <AANLkTikaDgOpE_2Egk2M8N3rvAyc3ZNCmXrMm57RHX_p at mail.gmail.com>
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="windows-1252"
>
> Dear Alexander,
> thanks for the correction. In our system, 1 kg (dry) food waste provides 1
> kW electricity for 1 hour. I am absolutely sure of these figures, because
> we
> are daily generating electricity on our own campus by using food waste from
> our own hostel. If your calculations show our system to be 3 times as
> efficient as the one reported in the article, then it must be so. All I can
> claim is that our biogas production system is currently the cheapest and
> the
> most efficient biogas system in the world. Scientists of a prestigeous
> Institute of the Government of India had come to us to have a look at our
> biogas system, because using the same amount of waste, our system
> produced 10 times as much biogas as the two phase system developed by them.
> The report submitted by them to their bosses explained the difference in
> the
> performance of the two systems being due to the fact that their system was
> primarily a waste disposal system, whereas ours was primarily a biogas
> generating system. So far, we have installed about 5000 such biogas plants
> all over India and also about 50 on the African continent.
> Yours
> A.D.Karve
>
> On Thu, Oct 7, 2010 at 2:47 AM, Alexander Eaton <alex at sistemabiobolsa.com
> >wrote:
>
> > Hi Dr. Karve:
> >
> > A small point, your energy conversion from gas volume to kW needs to be
> > modified.  Either the gas volume needs to be presented in a daily rate,
> > which therefore can be converted to power potential (kW, meaning X kW
> over
> > the 24 hours of a day), or you need to convert a volume of biogas into
> kWh,
> > a unit of energy.  This is important, as I am very interested in your
> post,
> > but it does not make sense as stated, and the two possible options are
> very
> > different.  I THINK you mean that 0.8 m3 of biogas can generate 1 kWh of
> > electricity (provide 1 kW of power for 1 hour).  Is this correct?
> >
> > Also, the discrepancy between house values could be a US to the Rest of
> the
> > World translation: the average US household uses 11,040 kWh annually, an
> > average of 920 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per month, or about 30 kWh per day.
> > That would means that by your calculation the food waste mentioned would
> > generate enough electricity for 80 homes in the US, or more than 3 times
> the
> > estimate in the article.  I think there may be something lost in
> > translation?  What do you think?  Could it be that the ARTI system can
> > produce 3 times the amount of energy as other food waste digesters?  Or
> are
> > you not taking the energy conversion in an internal combustion engine
> into
> > account, which would cut the raw energy value by about 3 times when
> > converting to electricity?
> >
> > Best,
> >
> > A
> >
> >
> > On Tue, Oct 5, 2010 at 6:47 PM, Anand Karve <adkarve at gmail.com> wrote:
> >
> >> Dear Hooroo,
> >> our ARTI biogas system produces about 800 litres or 0.8 cubic
> >> meters biogas from 1 kg (dry weight) of food waste. It takes about 500
> >> litres (0.5 cubic m) to generate one kW electricity, if one uses an
> internal
> >> combustion engine to drive the generator.  The article reproduced by you
> >> says that 3 tons of food waste produces enough power to provide
> electricity
> >> to 25 houses for a day. Assuming that the food waste mentioned in the
> >> article has about 50% water, the three tons are reduced to a dry weight
> of
> >> 1.5 tons, which would produce, in a single phase ARTI biogas plant,
> about
> >> 1,200,000 litres or 1200 cubic meters of biogas, enough to generate
> about
> >> 2400 kW electricity. It is unfortunate that the article reproduced by
> you
> >> does not give figures, but I thnk that with food waste as rqw material,
> the
> >> ARTI biogas system might turn out to be more efficient in converting
> food
> >> waste into biogas. There are also factual mistakes in the article
> reproduced
> >> by you. It says that there are no methane producing bacteria in the
> human
> >> gut. This is not true. The methanogens are found in the guts of all
> animals.
> >> I also question the concept of a series of organisms converting
> cellulose to
> >> starch to sugar to organic acids to acetic acid to methane. An organism
> >> needs extra-cellular digestion only in the case of cellulose. Once it
> gets
> >> converted into glucose, it is taken into the cell and metabolised to the
> end
> >> by one and the same micro-organism.
> >> Yours
> >> A.D.Karve
> >>
> >>   On Wed, Oct 6, 2010 at 6:08 AM, Paul Harris <
> >> paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au> wrote:
> >>
> >>>    G?day All,
> >>>
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> A couple of people have asked for the attachment to an article I
> reposted
> >>> for Dhanesh Kumar [daquab4u at gmail.com]. I left it off thinking it had
> >>> exceeded the Listserver size limit but will try again.
> >>>
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> Happy Digesting,
> >>>
> >>> HOOROO
> >>> Turning Trash Into Power
> >>> Biological Engineers Generate Natural Gas with Bacteria
> >>>
> >>> *October 1, 2006* ? A new kind of waste digester uses two different
> >>> strains of bacteria in different tanks. This would normally take place
> in
> >>> the same environment, but microbiologists have now separated it into
> two
> >>> stages that increases natural-gas production. The technology increases
> >>> efficiency and can turn three tons of food scraps into enough energy to
> >>> power 25 homes for a day.
> >>>  ------------------------------
> >>>
> >>> *See also:*
> >>>
> >>> *Plants & Animals* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/>
> >>>
> >>>    - Extreme Survival<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/extreme_survival/>
> >>>    - Bacteria<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/bacteria/>
> >>>
> >>> *Earth & Climate* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/>
> >>>
> >>>    - Energy and the Environment<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/energy/>
> >>>    - Renewable Energy<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/renewable_energy/>
> >>>
> >>> *Matter & Energy* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/>
> >>>
> >>>    - Electricity<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/electricity/>
> >>>    - Organic Chemistry<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/organic_chemistry/>
> >>>
> >>> *Reference* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/>
> >>>
> >>>    - Biodegradation<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/b/biodegradation.htm>
> >>>    - Waste management<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/w/waste_management.htm>
> >>>    - Biomass <http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/b/biomass.htm>
> >>>    - Sewage treatment<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/s/sewage_treatment.htm>
> >>>
> >>> DAVIS, Calif. -- There's a new twist on the old adage, one man's trash
> is
> >>> another man's treasure. Now that trash may be another man's power.
> >>> Researchers in California are turning garbage into bio-gas that may one
> day
> >>> provide the electricity in your home.
> >>>
> >>> Trash could soon be powering your home. A new digester can transform it
> >>> into energy. It uses two strains of bacteria to convert waste into
> bio-gas.
> >>> Most digesters store both bacteria in the same tank, which makes the
> process
> >>> unpredictable and slow. But not this digester.
> >>>
> >>> "Zhang's process takes the two bacteria and separates them into two
> >>> separate environments," Dave Konwinski, the director of OnSite Power
> Systems
> >>> in Davis, Calif., tells DBIS.
> >>>
> >>> This new and improved digester is the brain child of Biological
> Engineer
> >>> Ruihong Zhang. She and her students at UC Davis first built its
> prototype in
> >>> the lab. She's thrilled her new technology is being put to use in the
> real
> >>> world.
> >>>
> >>> "It's a new technology ... So it's like a child grow into adult," she
> >>> says.
> >>>
> >>> The digester will turn three tons of food scraps into energy for 25
> >>> houses a day. But it's not just for homes. The digester could be
> especially
> >>> useful to fuel processing plants. It s scheduled to be up and running
> this
> >>> fall. OnSite Power Systems plans to market it in several states in the
> next
> >>> couple of years, including California, Wisconsin and Minnesota.
> >>>
> >>> "We can actually scale a digester to fit their current operations, fill
> >>> it right at their operations, take the waste stream into the digester,
> and
> >>> the energy right back into the plant," Konwinski says. "It will make a
> >>> substantial dent in our current energy requirement for petroleum."
> >>>
> >>> It's a win-win-win situation for the environment, industry and
> consumers.
> >>>
> >>> *BACKGROUND:* Environmental engineers at the University of California,
> >>> Davis, are building a full-scale anaerobic digester that can convert
> any
> >>> type of solid organic waste into electricity -- even leftovers from
> >>> restaurants. The system is part of the $100,000 Sacramento Municipal
> Utility
> >>> District (SMUD pilot project), but an even larger digester system is
> being
> >>> put into place in San Francisco.
> >>>
> >>> *HOW IT WORKS:* In the process, food waste is collected from
> restaurants
> >>> and institutions and then fed to bacteria that thrive in low-oxygen
> >>> environments. It's called anaerobic digestion, a naturally occurring
> process
> >>> of decomposition. One type of bacteria turns carbohydrates into simple
> >>> sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. A second group of bacteria eats
> those
> >>> compounds and turns them into hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and acetic
> acid
> >>> -- the primary component of vinegar. Then a third group of bacteria
> takes
> >>> those broken-down compounds and turns them into methane and carbon
> dioxide.
> >>> Between 60 and 80 percent becomes methane. The methane can be used as
> fuel
> >>> for an internal combustion engine that provides electricity.
> >>>
> >>> *TYPES OF DIGESTION:* Anaerobic digestion is not the same thing as
> human
> >>> digestion, since the type of bacteria that produce methane don't live
> in the
> >>> human digestive tract. Industrial anaerobic digesters can also harness
> this
> >>> natural process to treat waste, provide heat, and increase nutrients in
> >>> soil. They are most commonly used for sewage treatment and for managing
> >>> animal waste.
> >>>
> >>> *BENEFITS:* The goal of SMUD is to obtain 20 percent of its electricity
> >>> from renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biodegradable matter by
> >>> 2011. Currently SMUD derives 10 percent of its electricity from
> renewable
> >>> sources, of which biomass accounts for 2.5 percent. The UC-Davis
> digester
> >>> would keep food and other biodegradable waste out of landfills; food
> >>> leftovers account for 18 percent of a landfill's contents. One tone of
> >>> leftover food can produce enough fuel to power 18 homes for one day.
> >>>
> >>> *WHAT ARE EXTREMOPHILES?* An extremophile is any microbe that thrives
> in
> >>> extreme conditions, such as temperature (extreme heat or cold),
> pressure,
> >>> salinity, low oxygen environments, or high concentrations of hostile
> >>> chemicals. Most extremophiles belong to a class known as
> archaeobacteria,
> >>> but certain species of worm, crustacean and krill can also be
> considered
> >>> extremophiles.
> >>>
> >>> *The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.<
> http://www.ieeeusa.org/>,
> >>> contributed to the information contained in the TV portion of this
> report.
> >>> *
> >>>
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> [image: http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/ivanhoe.gif]<
> http://www.ivanhoe.com/ftk>
> >>>
> >>> *Note:** This story and accompanying video were originally produced for
> >>> the American Institute of Physics series Discoveries and Breakthroughs
> >>> in Science <http://www.aip.org/dbis/> by Ivanhoe Broadcast News and
> are
> >>> protected by copyright law. All rights reserved.*
> >>>
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> Ads by Google<
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> >>>
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> >>>
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> >
> >>> *
> >>> Deepen your knowledge about the energy sources of the future.
> >>> knowledge.allianz.com/energy-future<
> http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=BzuqEJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUDrPS34QH8mZbnE8CNtwGgjQYQAxgDINKg9AEoCDgAUJP7hsj9_____wFg5aLlg6wOsgEUd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb23IAQHaAUlodHRwOi8vd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb20vdmlkZW9zLzIwMDYvMTAwMi10dXJuaW5nX3RyYXNoX2ludG9fcG93ZXIuaHRtqQKSkxW80v22PsgC9KyMF6gDAegDlAXoA5EF6APpAegDDOgDuAP1AwAEAEU&num=3&sig=AGiWqtxRtTbiS9qCSy19ZwNRFpvXQcM82g&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://knowledge.allianz.com/en/globalissues/energy_co2/renewable_energy/schmuck_renewable_solar_panel_building_electricity.html%3Futm_source%3Dgoogle%26utm_medium%3Dcpc%26utm_term%3Drenewable%2520energy%2520wind_Exact%26utm_campaign%3DAllianz%2520Knowledge%2520-%2520Energy%2520and%2520CO2
> >
> >>>
> >>> *Green Fuels - Biodiesel<
> http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=B8LTFJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUD5pnH1QG6ouvFC8CNtwGA8QQQBBgEINKg9AEoCDgAUMWBlbj______wFg5aLlg6wOsgEUd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb23IAQHaAUlodHRwOi8vd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb20vdmlkZW9zLzIwMDYvMTAwMi10dXJuaW5nX3RyYXNoX2ludG9fcG93ZXIuaHRtgAIBqQJVQKDCOJC6PqgDAegDlAXoA5EF6APpAegDDOgDuAP1AwAEAEU&num=4&sig=AGiWqtzDfYmhQIAUn4uZhP6UNZfgexYNGA&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.greenfuels.co.uk
> >
> >>> *
> >>> Safe, reliable, automated home and commercial biodiesel processors
> >>> www.greenfuels.co.uk<
> http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=B8LTFJQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUD5pnH1QG6ouvFC8CNtwGA8QQQBBgEINKg9AEoCDgAUMWBlbj______wFg5aLlg6wOsgEUd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb23IAQHaAUlodHRwOi8vd3d3LnNjaWVuY2VkYWlseS5jb20vdmlkZW9zLzIwMDYvMTAwMi10dXJuaW5nX3RyYXNoX2ludG9fcG93ZXIuaHRtgAIBqQJVQKDCOJC6PqgDAegDlAXoA5EF6APpAegDDOgDuAP1AwAEAEU&num=4&sig=AGiWqtzDfYmhQIAUn4uZhP6UNZfgexYNGA&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.greenfuels.co.uk
> >
> >>>
> >>> *Waste to Energy<
> http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=Bcti8JQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUDufWgwAGJlP2KFcCNtwGw6gEQBRgFINKg9AEoCDgAUNmB3ZAFYOWi5YOsDrIBFHd3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tyAEB2gFJaHR0cDovL3d3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tL3ZpZGVvcy8yMDA2LzEwMDItdHVybmluZ190cmFzaF9pbnRvX3Bvd2VyLmh0bakCVUCgwjiQuj6oAwHoA5QF6AORBegD6QHoAwzoA7gD9QMABABF&num=5&sig=AGiWqtxR6iIGICyKNV_V_vPXI3PXBoXdog&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.bauerw2e.com
> >
> >>> *
> >>> Converting waste to energy Turn waste into fuel
> >>> www.bauerw2e.com<
> http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/aclk?sa=l&ai=Bcti8JQyqTLzTOpLNcJDZrIUDufWgwAGJlP2KFcCNtwGw6gEQBRgFINKg9AEoCDgAUNmB3ZAFYOWi5YOsDrIBFHd3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tyAEB2gFJaHR0cDovL3d3dy5zY2llbmNlZGFpbHkuY29tL3ZpZGVvcy8yMDA2LzEwMDItdHVybmluZ190cmFzaF9pbnRvX3Bvd2VyLmh0bakCVUCgwjiQuj6oAwHoA5QF6AORBegD6QHoAwzoA7gD9QMABABF&num=5&sig=AGiWqtxR6iIGICyKNV_V_vPXI3PXBoXdog&client=ca-pub-1787672658759074&adurl=http://www.bauerw2e.com
> >
> >>> Related Stories
> >>> ------------------------------
> >>>
> >>> *New 'Digester' Converts Garbage To Energy<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041012093158.htm>
> >>> * (October 12, 2004) ? UC Davis bioenvironmental engineer Ruihong Zhang
> >>> sees a vast untapped resource in lawn clippings, household table scraps
> and
> >>> other biodegradable materials: enough energy to keep the lights burning
> in
> >>> ...  > *read more*<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041012093158.htm>
> >>>
> >>> [image:
> >>> http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2010/04/100414083539-thumb.jpg]<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
> >>> *New Super Bacterium Doubles Hydrogen Gas Production<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
> >>> * (April 14, 2010) ? Hydrogen gas is today used primarily for
> >>> manufacturing chemicals, but a bright future is predicted for it as a
> >>> vehicle fuel in combination with fuel cells. In order to produce
> hydrogen
> >>> gas in a way ...  > *read more*<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
> >>>
> >>> *Synthesizing Gas, Making Energy<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070911155512.htm>
> >>> * (September 12, 2007) ? A way to convert natural gas into raw
> materials
> >>> for the chemical industry and generate power as a by-product could lead
> to
> >>> more environmental benign manufacturing processes. Making synthesis gas
> -- a
> >>> ...  > *read more*<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070911155512.htm>
> >>>
> >>> *Sweet Smell Of Success: New UF System Helps Dairy Farms Reduce Odors<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/11/001122183221.htm>
> >>> * (November 24, 2000) ? With hundreds or thousands of cows eating,
> >>> drinking and, well, doing what cows do naturally, dairy farms have
> earned a
> >>> reputation for bad odors. Combine that with urban sprawl that brings
> city
> >>> ...  > *read more*<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/11/001122183221.htm>
> >>>
> >>> *Storing Green Electricity as Natural Gas<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100505113227.htm>
> >>> * (May 5, 2010) ? Renewable electricity can be transformed into a
> >>> substitute for natural gas. Until now, electricity was generated from
> gas.
> >>> Now, a German-Austrian cooperation wants to go in the opposite
> direction. In
> >>> ...  > *read more*<
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100505113227.htm>
> >>>  Search ScienceD <http://www.sciencedaily.com/subscribe/>
> >>>
> >>> Mr. Paul Harris, Room S116b, Waite Main Building Faculty of Sciences,
> >>> The  University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB 1, Glen Osmond SA 5064
> Ph
> >>> : +61 8 8303 7880      Fax   : +61 8 8303 4386
> >>> mailto:paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au <paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au>
> >>> http://www.adelaide.edu.au/directory/paul.harris
> >>>
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> CRICOS Provider Number 00123M
> >>>
> >>> This email message is intended only for the addressee(s) and contains
> >>> information that may be confidential and/or copyright.  If you are not
> the
> >>> intended recipient please notify the sender by reply email and
> immediately
> >>> delete this email. Use, disclosure or reproduction of this email by
> anyone
> >>> other than the intended recipient(s) is strictly prohibited. No
> >>> representation is made that this email or any attachments are free of
> >>> viruses. Virus scanning is recommended and is the responsibility of the
> >>> recipient.
> >>>
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> _______________________________________________
> >>> Digestion mailing list
> >>> Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>>
> >>>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>>
> >>>
> >>
> >>
> >> --
> >> ***
> >> Dr. A.D. Karve
> >> President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)
> >>
> >> *Please change my email address in your records to: adkarve at gmail.com *
> >>
> >>
> >> _______________________________________________
> >> Digestion mailing list
> >> Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>
> >>
> >
> >
> > --
> > Alexander Eaton
> > Sistema Biobolsa
> > IRRI-Mexico
> >
> > Mex cel: (55) 11522786
> > US cel: 970 275 4505
> >
> > alex at sistemabiobolsa.com
> > alexanderb.eaton at gmail.com
> > sistemabiobolsa.com
> > www.irrimexico.org
> >
> > _______________________________________________
> > Digestion mailing list
> > Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >
> >
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >
> >
>
>
> --
> ***
> Dr. A.D. Karve
> President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)
>
> *Please change my email address in your records to: adkarve at gmail.com *
> -------------- next part --------------
> An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
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> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/pipermail/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org/attachments/20101007/aeaef152/attachment-0001.html
> >
>
> ------------------------------
>
> Message: 3
> Date: Thu, 7 Oct 2010 06:56:38 +0800
> From: Anand Karve <adkarve at gmail.com>
> To: For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
>        <digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> Subject: Re: [Digestion] Digestion Digest, Vol 2, Issue 17
> Message-ID:
>        <AANLkTimywZSjXe5prEVNtouAquC_Gn4pkmSBgsE-L79- at mail.gmail.com>
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
>
> Dear Mr. Kasulla,
> we have specialised in using food waste as feedstock in our biogas system.
> The reason is that the methanogens reside in human guts and they eat what
> the humans eat. They are only thrown out of the body with fecal matter, but
> fecal matter is not their food. If you have an operating biogas plant, just
> add 1 kg flour from any cereal grain and see for yourself, how much biogas
> you get.
> Yours
> A.D.Karve
>
> On Wed, Oct 6, 2010 at 9:12 PM, Srinivas Kasulla
> <srinivaskasulla at gmail.com>wrote:
>
> > Dear Dr Karve,
> > After reading your reply and the other replies in this list, i am getting
> > confused that
> >
> >    - does food waste have 50% water?? i always calculated it to be not
> >    more than 18% and 80 - 85% VS of the 18% dry matter and have installed
> many
> >    biogas plants all over India and to my surprise all are working quite
> well
> >    with this calculations........am i wrong in calculating this data?
> >    - Second question is - You have mentioned that AARTI system produces
> >    0.8 cubic meter of gas from 1 kg dry matter (which am sure u have
> calculated
> >    to be 50% water) which again confuses me by postulating almost 80
> cubic
> >    meter of gas from 100 kg waste with 50% water?? which is really a
> >    unbeleivable and never dreamt gas production from your
> system........seems
> >    like we all have to learn a lott from you Sir.
> >
> > There are few more questions but let me solve the above two for better
> > understandings of my basics.
> >
> >
> >
> > regards
> > SRINIVAS KASULLA
> > 9004689601
> >
> > On Wed, Oct 6, 2010 at 2:56 PM, <
> > digestion-request at lists.bioenergylists.org> wrote:
> >
> >> Send Digestion mailing list submissions to
> >>        digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>
> >> To subscribe or unsubscribe via the World Wide Web, visit
> >>
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>
> >> or, via email, send a message with subject or body 'help' to
> >>        digestion-request at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>
> >> You can reach the person managing the list at
> >>        digestion-owner at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>
> >> When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific
> >> than "Re: Contents of Digestion digest..."
> >>
> >>
> >> Today's Topics:
> >>
> >>   1. Re: 1. Re: Inoculation for Small Digesters (Alexander Eaton)
> >>   2. Re: Attachment to previous Article - More scientific based
> >>      research and questions (Anand Karve)
> >>   3. Re: size and cost of a small domestic biogas plant (Duncan Martin)
> >>   4. Re: Eliminating Sulfides. (Igor ?krjanec)
> >>
> >>
> >> ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> >>
> >> Message: 1
> >> Date: Tue, 5 Oct 2010 10:45:18 -0600
> >> From: Alexander Eaton <alex at sistemabiobolsa.com>
> >> To: For discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
> >>        <digestion at listserv.repp.org>
> >> Subject: Re: [Digestion] 1. Re: Inoculation for Small Digesters
> >> Message-ID:
> >>        <AANLkTikAsjbvk4LOv5GLvgPkz9rt0Xop6OBUUqdDpnye at mail.gmail.com>
> >> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
> >>
> >> Thanks Peter.  This is how this thread started: we use paunch manure
> from
> >> the first unit, but it is a stinky job, and not super easy to transport.
> >> This is only an issue as we are ramping our installations up to 5-10 per
> >> week.  I was hoping to find a comparably effective method that maybe
> >> cultured the same bacteria, or at least concentrated the stomach
> material.
> >> Any thoughts?
> >>
> >> A
> >>
> >> On Mon, Oct 4, 2010 at 5:56 AM, P M Allison <pmallison at optusnet.com.au
> >> >wrote:
> >>
> >> > For an excellent AD starter culture I have used the contents of a
> >> freshly
> >> > slaughtered cow's stomach, preferably the first unit which contains
> the
> >> > methano-bacteria, rather than the others.
> >> > I have also trialed septic tank biological cultures in dried and
> >> pelleted
> >> > forms as long as anaerobes are part of the cultural mix.
> >> > Peter.
> >> > ____________________________________
> >> > Digestion mailing list
> >> > Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> >
> >> >
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> > Beginner's Guide to Biogas
> >> > http://www.adelaide.edu.au/biogas/
> >> > Biogas Wiki http://biogas.wikispaces.com/
> >> > http://info.bioenergylists.org
> >> >
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> --
> >> Alexander Eaton
> >> Sistema Biobolsa
> >> IRRI-Mexico
> >>
> >> Mex cel: (55) 11522786
> >> US cel: 970 275 4505
> >>
> >> alex at sistemabiobolsa.com
> >> alexanderb.eaton at gmail.com
> >> sistemabiobolsa.com
> >> www.irrimexico.org
> >> ____________________________________
> >> Digestion mailing list
> >> Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> Beginner's Guide to Biogas
> >> http://www.adelaide.edu.au/biogas/
> >> Biogas Wiki http://biogas.wikispaces.com/
> >> http://info.bioenergylists.org
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> ------------------------------
> >>
> >> Message: 2
> >> Date: Wed, 6 Oct 2010 08:47:18 +0800
> >> From: Anand Karve <adkarve at gmail.com>
> >> To: paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au, For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
> >>        <digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> >> Subject: Re: [Digestion] Attachment to previous Article - More
> >>        scientific based research and questions
> >> Message-ID:
> >>        <AANLkTikiegvQRR3HowhYq5PM6hXsws+vrR6bH57PXCCo at mail.gmail.com<AANLkTikiegvQRR3HowhYq5PM6hXsws%2BvrR6bH57PXCCo at mail.gmail.com>
> <AANLkTikiegvQRR3HowhYq5PM6hXsws%2BvrR6bH57PXCCo at mail.gmail.com<AANLkTikiegvQRR3HowhYq5PM6hXsws%252BvrR6bH57PXCCo at mail.gmail.com>
> >
> >> >
> >> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="windows-1252"
> >>
> >> Dear Hooroo,
> >> our ARTI biogas system produces about 800 litres or 0.8 cubic meters
> >> biogas
> >> from 1 kg (dry weight) of food waste. It takes about 500 litres (0.5
> cubic
> >> m) to generate one kW electricity, if one uses an internal combustion
> >> engine
> >> to drive the generator.  The article reproduced by you says that 3 tons
> of
> >> food waste produces enough power to provide electricity to 25 houses for
> a
> >> day. Assuming that the food waste mentioned in the article has about 50%
> >> water, the three tons are reduced to a dry weight of 1.5 tons, which
> would
> >> produce, in a single phase ARTI biogas plant, about 1,200,000 litres or
> >> 1200
> >> cubic meters of biogas, enough to generate about 2400 kW electricity. It
> >> is
> >> unfortunate that the article reproduced by you does not give figures,
> but
> >> I
> >> thnk that with food waste as rqw material, the ARTI biogas system might
> >> turn
> >> out to be more efficient in converting food waste into biogas. There are
> >> also factual mistakes in the article reproduced by you. It says that
> there
> >> are no methane producing bacteria in the human gut. This is not true.
> The
> >> methanogens are found in the guts of all animals. I also question the
> >> concept of a series of organisms converting cellulose to starch to sugar
> >> to
> >> organic acids to acetic acid to methane. An organism needs
> extra-cellular
> >> digestion only in the case of cellulose. Once it gets converted into
> >> glucose, it is taken into the cell and metabolised to the end by one and
> >> the
> >> same micro-organism.
> >> Yours
> >> A.D.Karve
> >>
> >> On Wed, Oct 6, 2010 at 6:08 AM, Paul Harris <
> paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au
> >> >wrote:
> >>
> >> >  G?day All,
> >> >
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > A couple of people have asked for the attachment to an article I
> >> reposted
> >> > for Dhanesh Kumar [daquab4u at gmail.com]. I left it off thinking it had
> >> > exceeded the Listserver size limit but will try again.
> >> >
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > Happy Digesting,
> >> >
> >> > HOOROO
> >> > Turning Trash Into Power
> >> > Biological Engineers Generate Natural Gas with Bacteria
> >> >
> >> > *October 1, 2006* ? A new kind of waste digester uses two different
> >> > strains of bacteria in different tanks. This would normally take place
> >> in
> >> > the same environment, but microbiologists have now separated it into
> two
> >> > stages that increases natural-gas production. The technology increases
> >> > efficiency and can turn three tons of food scraps into enough energy
> to
> >> > power 25 homes for a day.
> >> >  ------------------------------
> >> >
> >> > *See also:*
> >> >
> >> > *Plants & Animals* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/>
> >> >
> >> >    - Extreme Survival<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/extreme_survival/>
> >> >    - Bacteria <
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/bacteria/>
> >> >
> >> > *Earth & Climate* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/>
> >> >
> >> >    - Energy and the Environment<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/energy/>
> >> >    - Renewable Energy<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/renewable_energy/>
> >> >
> >> > *Matter & Energy* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/>
> >> >
> >> >    - Electricity<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/electricity/>
> >> >    - Organic Chemistry<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/organic_chemistry/>
> >> >
> >> > *Reference* <http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/>
> >> >
> >> >    - Biodegradation<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/b/biodegradation.htm>
> >> >    - Waste management<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/w/waste_management.htm>
> >> >    - Biomass <http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/b/biomass.htm>
> >> >    - Sewage treatment<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/s/sewage_treatment.htm>
> >> >
> >> > DAVIS, Calif. -- There's a new twist on the old adage, one man's trash
> >> is
> >> > another man's treasure. Now that trash may be another man's power.
> >> > Researchers in California are turning garbage into bio-gas that may
> one
> >> day
> >> > provide the electricity in your home.
> >> >
> >> > Trash could soon be powering your home. A new digester can transform
> it
> >> > into energy. It uses two strains of bacteria to convert waste into
> >> bio-gas.
> >> > Most digesters store both bacteria in the same tank, which makes the
> >> process
> >> > unpredictable and slow. But not this digester.
> >> >
> >> > "Zhang's process takes the two bacteria and separates them into two
> >> > separate environments," Dave Konwinski, the director of OnSite Power
> >> Systems
> >> > in Davis, Calif., tells DBIS.
> >> >
> >> > This new and improved digester is the brain child of Biological
> Engineer
> >> > Ruihong Zhang. She and her students at UC Davis first built its
> >> prototype in
> >> > the lab. She's thrilled her new technology is being put to use in the
> >> real
> >> > world.
> >> >
> >> > "It's a new technology ... So it's like a child grow into adult," she
> >> says.
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > The digester will turn three tons of food scraps into energy for 25
> >> houses
> >> > a day. But it's not just for homes. The digester could be especially
> >> useful
> >> > to fuel processing plants. It s scheduled to be up and running this
> >> fall.
> >> > OnSite Power Systems plans to market it in several states in the next
> >> couple
> >> > of years, including California, Wisconsin and Minnesota.
> >> >
> >> > "We can actually scale a digester to fit their current operations,
> fill
> >> it
> >> > right at their operations, take the waste stream into the digester,
> and
> >> the
> >> > energy right back into the plant," Konwinski says. "It will make a
> >> > substantial dent in our current energy requirement for petroleum."
> >> >
> >> > It's a win-win-win situation for the environment, industry and
> >> consumers.
> >> >
> >> > *BACKGROUND:* Environmental engineers at the University of California,
> >> > Davis, are building a full-scale anaerobic digester that can convert
> any
> >> > type of solid organic waste into electricity -- even leftovers from
> >> > restaurants. The system is part of the $100,000 Sacramento Municipal
> >> Utility
> >> > District (SMUD pilot project), but an even larger digester system is
> >> being
> >> > put into place in San Francisco.
> >> >
> >> > *HOW IT WORKS:* In the process, food waste is collected from
> restaurants
> >> > and institutions and then fed to bacteria that thrive in low-oxygen
> >> > environments. It's called anaerobic digestion, a naturally occurring
> >> process
> >> > of decomposition. One type of bacteria turns carbohydrates into simple
> >> > sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. A second group of bacteria eats
> >> those
> >> > compounds and turns them into hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and acetic
> >> acid
> >> > -- the primary component of vinegar. Then a third group of bacteria
> >> takes
> >> > those broken-down compounds and turns them into methane and carbon
> >> dioxide.
> >> > Between 60 and 80 percent becomes methane. The methane can be used as
> >> fuel
> >> > for an internal combustion engine that provides electricity.
> >> >
> >> > *TYPES OF DIGESTION:* Anaerobic digestion is not the same thing as
> human
> >> > digestion, since the type of bacteria that produce methane don't live
> in
> >> the
> >> > human digestive tract. Industrial anaerobic digesters can also harness
> >> this
> >> > natural process to treat waste, provide heat, and increase nutrients
> in
> >> > soil. They are most commonly used for sewage treatment and for
> managing
> >> > animal waste.
> >> >
> >> > *BENEFITS:* The goal of SMUD is to obtain 20 percent of its
> electricity
> >> > from renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biodegradable matter
> by
> >> > 2011. Currently SMUD derives 10 percent of its electricity from
> >> renewable
> >> > sources, of which biomass accounts for 2.5 percent. The UC-Davis
> >> digester
> >> > would keep food and other biodegradable waste out of landfills; food
> >> > leftovers account for 18 percent of a landfill's contents. One tone of
> >> > leftover food can produce enough fuel to power 18 homes for one day.
> >> >
> >> > *WHAT ARE EXTREMOPHILES?* An extremophile is any microbe that thrives
> in
> >> > extreme conditions, such as temperature (extreme heat or cold),
> >> pressure,
> >> > salinity, low oxygen environments, or high concentrations of hostile
> >> > chemicals. Most extremophiles belong to a class known as
> >> archaeobacteria,
> >> > but certain species of worm, crustacean and krill can also be
> considered
> >> > extremophiles.
> >> >
> >> > *The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.<
> >> http://www.ieeeusa.org/>,
> >> > contributed to the information contained in the TV portion of this
> >> report.
> >> > *
> >> >
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > [image: http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/ivanhoe.gif]<
> >> http://www.ivanhoe.com/ftk>
> >> >
> >> > *Note:** This story and accompanying video were originally produced
> for
> >> > the American Institute of Physics series Discoveries and Breakthroughs
> >> in
> >> > Science <http://www.aip.org/dbis/> by Ivanhoe Broadcast News and are
> >> > protected by copyright law. All rights reserved.*
> >> >
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > Ads by Google<
> >>
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> >> >
> >> >
> >> > *Renewable Energy<
> >>
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> >> >
> >> > *
> >> > Deepen your knowledge about the energy sources of the future.
> >> > knowledge.allianz.com/energy-future<
> >>
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> >> >
> >> >
> >> > *Green Fuels - Biodiesel<
> >>
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> >> >
> >> > *
> >> > Safe, reliable, automated home and commercial biodiesel processors
> >> > www.greenfuels.co.uk<
> >>
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> >> >
> >> >
> >> > *Waste to Energy<
> >>
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> >> >
> >> > *
> >> > Converting waste to energy Turn waste into fuel
> >> > www.bauerw2e.com<
> >>
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> >> >
> >> > Related Stories
> >> > ------------------------------
> >> >
> >> > *New 'Digester' Converts Garbage To Energy<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041012093158.htm>
> >> > * (October 12, 2004) ? UC Davis bioenvironmental engineer Ruihong
> Zhang
> >> > sees a vast untapped resource in lawn clippings, household table
> scraps
> >> and
> >> > other biodegradable materials: enough energy to keep the lights
> burning
> >> in
> >> > ...  > *read more*<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041012093158.htm>
> >> >
> >> > [image:
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2010/04/100414083539-thumb.jpg]<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
> >> > *New Super Bacterium Doubles Hydrogen Gas Production<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
> >> > * (April 14, 2010) ? Hydrogen gas is today used primarily for
> >> > manufacturing chemicals, but a bright future is predicted for it as a
> >> > vehicle fuel in combination with fuel cells. In order to produce
> >> hydrogen
> >> > gas in a way ...  > *read more*<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100414083539.htm>
> >> >
> >> > *Synthesizing Gas, Making Energy<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070911155512.htm>
> >> > * (September 12, 2007) ? A way to convert natural gas into raw
> materials
> >> > for the chemical industry and generate power as a by-product could
> lead
> >> to
> >> > more environmental benign manufacturing processes. Making synthesis
> gas
> >> -- a
> >> > ...  > *read more*<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070911155512.htm>
> >> >
> >> > *Sweet Smell Of Success: New UF System Helps Dairy Farms Reduce Odors<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/11/001122183221.htm>
> >> > * (November 24, 2000) ? With hundreds or thousands of cows eating,
> >> > drinking and, well, doing what cows do naturally, dairy farms have
> >> earned a
> >> > reputation for bad odors. Combine that with urban sprawl that brings
> >> city
> >> > ...  > *read more*<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/11/001122183221.htm>
> >> >
> >> > *Storing Green Electricity as Natural Gas<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100505113227.htm>
> >> > * (May 5, 2010) ? Renewable electricity can be transformed into a
> >> > substitute for natural gas. Until now, electricity was generated from
> >> gas.
> >> > Now, a German-Austrian cooperation wants to go in the opposite
> >> direction. In
> >> > ...  > *read more*<
> >> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100505113227.htm>
> >> >  Search ScienceD <http://www.sciencedaily.com/subscribe/>
> >> >
> >> > Mr. Paul Harris, Room S116b, Waite Main Building Faculty of Sciences,
> >> The
> >> > University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB 1, Glen Osmond SA 5064 Ph
>  :
> >> +61
> >> > 8 8303 7880      Fax   : +61 8 8303 4386
> >> > mailto:paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au <paul.harris at adelaide.edu.au>
> >> > http://www.adelaide.edu.au/directory/paul.harris
> >> >
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > CRICOS Provider Number 00123M
> >> >
> >> > This email message is intended only for the addressee(s) and contains
> >> > information that may be confidential and/or copyright.  If you are not
> >> the
> >> > intended recipient please notify the sender by reply email and
> >> immediately
> >> > delete this email. Use, disclosure or reproduction of this email by
> >> anyone
> >> > other than the intended recipient(s) is strictly prohibited. No
> >> > representation is made that this email or any attachments are free of
> >> > viruses. Virus scanning is recommended and is the responsibility of
> the
> >> > recipient.
> >> >
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > _______________________________________________
> >> > Digestion mailing list
> >> > Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> >
> >> >
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> >
> >> >
> >>
> >>
> >> --
> >> ***
> >> Dr. A.D. Karve
> >> President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)
> >>
> >> *Please change my email address in your records to: adkarve at gmail.com *
> >> -------------- next part --------------
> >> An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
> >> URL: <
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/pipermail/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org/attachments/20101006/5c64eb5f/attachment-0001.html
> >> >
> >>
> >> ------------------------------
> >>
> >> Message: 3
> >> Date: Wed, 6 Oct 2010 08:05:22 +0100
> >> From: Duncan Martin <duncanjmartin at gmail.com>
> >> To: For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
> >>        <digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> >> Subject: Re: [Digestion] size and cost of a small domestic biogas
> >>        plant
> >> Message-ID:
> >>        <AANLkTimykuvh_x2D7jhcpZz0sfXF=QWPM4EkEwJM+aeS at mail.gmail.com<QWPM4EkEwJM%2BaeS at mail.gmail.com>
> <QWPM4EkEwJM%2BaeS at mail.gmail.com <QWPM4EkEwJM%252BaeS at mail.gmail.com>>
> >> >
> >> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
> >>
> >> A typo I think - or has the Law of Conservation of Mass been repealed?
> >>
> >> " Using daily 1 kg (dry weight) food waste produces daily about 700 to
> 800
> >> kg biogas" !
> >>
> >> Maybe 7-800 litres?
> >>
> >> Duncan Martin
> >> Cloughjordan Ecovillage
> >> Ireland
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> On 4 October 2010 07:47, Anand Karve <adkarve at gmail.com> wrote:
> >>
> >> > Dear Members,
> >> > this question was raised in a recent flurry of messages. Instead of
> >> > repeating them, I  wish to state the following:
> >> >  Using daily 1 kg (dry weight) food waste produces daily about 700 to
> >> 800
> >> > kg biogas, which most small families (4 to 5 persons) find quite
> >> adequate
> >> > for cooking all their meals. Our biogas plant has a digester of 1000
> >> litres
> >> > and a moving drum type of a gas holder having a capacity of about 750
> >> > litres. The  cost of complete biogas plant is about US$200, if it is
> >> > manufactured according instructions contained in our video which can
> be
> >> > downloaded from our web site www.arti-india.org by paying us US$10
> >> through
> >> > Pay Pal. The matter was also discussed if yeast had beneficial effect
> on
> >> > biogas production. Frankly, I do not see why and how yeast should
> >> benefit
> >> > the process. Yeast would actually act as a competitor of the
> methanogens
> >> in
> >> > that the sugar that would normally have produced biogas, would be used
> >> by
> >> > the yeast in producing alcohol. It is likely that alcohol can act as
> >> > substrate for the methanogens (glycerin, which is an alcohol,  can be
> >> used
> >> > by the methanogens as a substrate), but a lot of energy would be
> wasted
> >> in
> >> > this process in comparison to obtaining methane directly from the
> sugars
> >> by
> >> > using the methanogens.
> >> > Yours
> >> > A.D.Karve
> >> > --
> >> > ***
> >> > Dr. A.D. Karve
> >> > President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)
> >> >
> >> > *Please change my email address in your records to: adkarve at gmail.com*
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > _______________________________________________
> >> > Digestion mailing list
> >> > Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> >
> >> >
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> >
> >> >
> >> -------------- next part --------------
> >> An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
> >> URL: <
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/pipermail/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org/attachments/20101006/c9509ccd/attachment-0001.html
> >> >
> >>
> >> ------------------------------
> >>
> >> Message: 4
> >> Date: Wed, 06 Oct 2010 11:25:47 +0200
> >> From: Igor ?krjanec <igor.skrjanec at gmail.com>
> >> To: For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
> >>        <digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> >> Subject: Re: [Digestion] Eliminating Sulfides.
> >> Message-ID: <4CAC409B.9010903 at gmail.com>
> >> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="windows-1252"; Format="flowed"
> >>
> >>  Na 5.10.2010 23:57, Ken Calvert je pisal:
> >> > Igor,  to my way of thinking, the use of ferric chloride is expensive,
> >> > because it is difficult to recover out of the system and you have to
> >> > keep buying more.  I am not sure quite where you intend to use it?  If
> >> > you are adding it to the input into the digester  it will settle
> >> > inside and gradually clog your system.   For me, the best filter
> >> > system is
> >> > a heavy steel, or a plastic drum  filled with bashed up rusty tin
> >> > cans.  Make sure they are rusty, because new ones are still coated
> >> > with a varnish that they use instead of the old tin plate.  Place the
> >> > iron oxide filter between the digester and the flexy gas bag for
> >> > storage.  This makes for an even rate of flow with enough moisture in
> >> > the gas to activate the reaction.  The H2S in the gas reacts with the
> >> > metalic iron or iron oxide and makes iron sulfide.   When nearly all
> >> > the oxide has gone, and the only way to be really sure is to have two
> >> > drums in parallel and switch from one to the other at regular
> >> > intervals,  all that is required to regenerate that drum is to open it
> >> > to the air.
> >> > In the presence of oyygen ferrous sulfide reverts to metalic iron and
> >> > elemental sulfur, along with the evolution of a lot of heat  With a
> >> > heavy steel drum that is no problem, you just hook a small blower onto
> >> > one outlet.   With a plastic drum its a case of just opening the inlet
> >> > and outlet .and positioning the drum in such a way that the heat will
> >> > cause a convention flow of hot air.  And if the drum gets too hot
> >> > reduce the air current.  With all the iron back into its metalic state
> >> > the drum is ready for recycle, until there is so much flowers of
> >> > sulfur that every thing gets clogged up.    ATB.  Ken C.
> >> >
> >> >     ----- Original Message -----
> >> >     *From:* Igor ?krjanec <mailto:igor.skrjanec at gmail.com>
> >> >     *To:* For Discussion of Anaerobic Digestion
> >> >     <mailto:digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org>
> >> >     *Sent:* Wednesday, October 06, 2010 12:55 AM
> >> >     *Subject:* Re: [Digestion] (no subject)
> >> >
> >> >     Na 4.10.2010 20:15, Arturo ?valos je pisal:
> >> >>
> >> >>     Hello all
> >> >>
> >> >>     Does someone know something about use ferric chloride to reduce
> >> >>     the sulfur content in the biogas?
> >> >>
> >> >>     Thanks for the information
> >> >>
> >> >>     //
> >> >>
> >> >>     Arturo
> >> >>
> >> >>
> >> >>     _______________________________________________
> >> >>     Digestion mailing list
> >> >>     Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> >>
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> >
> >> >     Hallo Arturo
> >> >
> >> >
> >> >     Ferric chloride is normally use for a neutralizations of H_2 S.
> >> >     Hydrogen sulfide is slightly soluble in water and acts as a weak
> >> >     acid <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weak_acid>, because of this is
> >> >     harmful for a CHP unit.
> >> >
> >> >     H_2 S is a product of sulfate-reducing bacteria
> >> >     <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfate-reducing_bacteria> which
> are
> >> >     also present in biogas reactor. Sulfate-reducing bacteria
> >> >     <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfate-reducing_bacteria> use
> >> >     present sulfats from substrates to oxidize the organic matter.
> >> >
> >> >     Hydrogen sulfide reacts with metal ions to form metal sulfides
> >> >     <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfide> (H_2 S + FeCl_2 ? FeS + 2
> >> >     HCl). Iron sulfide is not soluble and it is not problematic for a
> >> >     biogas process and CHP unit.
> >> >
> >> >     When biogas plant works normally hydrogen sulfide is not
> >> >     problematic, because of its oxidation with aerobic bacteria to
> >> >     elementary sulphur.
> >> >
> >> >
> >> >     Bye
> >> >
> >> >     Igor
> >> >
> >> >
> >> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> >> >     _______________________________________________
> >> >     Digestion mailing list
> >> >     Digestion at lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> >     http://lists.bioenergylists..org/mailman/listinfo/
> >> digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > _______________________________________________
> >> > Digestion mailing list
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> >> >
> >>
> http://lists.bioenergylists.org/mailman/listinfo/digestion_lists.bioenergylists.org
> >>
> >> Hello Ken,
> >>
> >> In Europe we use ferric chloride only in start-up. After month or two
> >> you don?t need FeCL_2 anymore, because we blowing into reactor small
> >> quantity of air. This is obligatory for aerobic bacteria which convert
> >> H_2 S in to elemental sulfur. This method is also efficient, cheap and
> >> easy to handle.
> >>
> >> Normally you need for 1 MW biogas plant around 0,5 m^3 FeCl_2. Because
> >> of low quantity of FeCL_2 we don?t haw any problems with sediment FeS
> >> and also this low concentracion of FeS are welcom as a fertilizer.
> >>
> >> Igor
> >>
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> >> End of Digestion Digest, Vol 2, Issue 17
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> >>
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> --
> ***
> Dr. A.D. Karve
> President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)
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